Sweat broadcasts hidden feelings of a man of his family and friends - VIDEO PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 24 August 2015 14:23
We all know that people sweat when it is hot or when they are experiencing anxiety or embarrassment. Far less known is the fact that sweat actually carries a certain emotional messages. In 1934, the authoritative British psychologist and a doctor by the name of McSweeney, speaking to his colleagues at a meeting of the Royal Society of Medicine, lamented the fact that many pundits have neglected the study of the chemical composition of human sweat. Instead, they focus solely on the mechanism by which the evaporation of sweat from the body surface, allowing to cool. But McSweeney, knew the meaning of sweat much deeper and is not confined to cooling the body by evaporation. Under certain conditions, the "loss of blood plasma components due to prolonged perspiration can be substantial." In other words, together with then derived from the human body has some substance. But what are these substances and to what effect - positive or negative - is their loss? Periodic Table, and not only Our sweat contains certain substances, which we would not like to lose. Take, for example, chlorine compounds, ie, chlorides. These components - chlorine atoms are often connected with sodium atoms, resulting in a (common) salt - are important to maintain the acid-base balance, regulating the movement of fluids in the cells and extracellular space, and for transmission of impulses along nerve fibers. As with sweat from the body out of these compounds, it is normal, but in some cases, the body may lose too much chloride. For example, imagine that you are working a few hours in the heat. Most of us know that we should drink water in order to maintain the required level of fluid in the body. But if you're too heavily sweating and drinking too much water, then you will have symptoms of water intoxication. In such circumstances, the body is simply unable to recover quickly enough the amount of chlorides, which leaves the body through sweat. The sweat also contains urea, a substance that gave the name of urine. At least, according to one estimate, from 0.24 to 1.12 milligrams of the substance dissolved in each cubic centimeter of sweat. It may seem that it's not so much, but considering that from the human body every day is allocated from 600 to 700 cubic centimeters of sweat, it turns out that with him the body of a daily output of up to 7% of the required urea him. Human sweat contains also ammonia, proteins, sugars, potassium salt and bicarbonate (baking soda). Not to mention the metallic trace elements - such as zinc, copper, iron, nickel, cadmium, lead, and even a little manganese. In the case of many of these metals is an important mechanism sweating removing them from the body. Valves for perspiration Sweat comes out of the body through two types of cancer. Apocrine glands located in the armpits, nostrils, nipples, ears, and some parts of the genitalia. However, the body has more eccrine sweat glands, millions of which are located substantially on the entire surface of the human body - everywhere except the lips and genitals. When the body and the skin becomes too hot, the thermal receptors send a message to the brain, which determines the degree of heat. In the brain, the hypothalamus - a small cluster of cells that controls hunger, thirst, sleep and body temperature - apocrine and eccrine sends a response message to the glands that give them the signal to start pumping out sweat. There is also a third type of sweat gland, which was opened in 1987. They are in the same places as the apocrine sweat glands, but because the researchers were not able to classify them as apocrine or eccrine, they got the name apoekkrinovyh sweat glands. Some scientists believe that this is the eccrine glands, which undergo changes during puberty. Means of communication Not all substances that come out of our body through sweat, are chemical in nature. Each of us at one time or another started to sweat because that ate something sharp; and most people familiar with the situation, when you start to sweat under the influence of emotions, experiencing feelings of fear, embarrassment, anxiety or pain. There is nothing surprising in the fact that sweating caused by emotions, often associated with parts of the body such as the palms, forehead, feet. In these places, eccrine glands are located at a much higher density, up to 700 pieces per square centimeter, whereas, for example on their back, there are only 64 per square centimeter. It turns out, sweating, caused by emotions, is an important tool of communication. In fact, the smell of sweat tone that we feel in such a situation, can tell us a lot about what other people are experiencing. In one experiment, which was carried out five psychologists from the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands, the scientists collected samples of sweat 10 men at a time when they watched the video, designed to evoke the feeling of fear (excerpts from the film "The Shining") or disgust (excerpts from the television series "Freaks "walking on MTV). In order to avoid the appearance of extraneous odors, the volunteers agreed to remove from your diet strong-smelling foods, alcohol and tobacco, as well as to cease to engage in excessive exercise for two days before they take a sample of sweat. The researchers then asked 36 women to determine what kind of emotions experienced men, when the samples were taken from the pot. The researchers found that those women smelling of sweat samples taken at the moment when the man was afraid, and expressed the same feeling. When a woman offers to smell samples from men who feel a sense of disgust, their faces mirrored the same emotions. (Pads to collect the sweat, which remained unused, used as control samples for checking the results of the experiment, and they have not caused any predictable expressions on the faces of the participants experience). Thus, the results of the experiment suggest that sweat, seems to be an effective means of conveying the emotional state of one person to another. Importantly, the expression on the faces of women, when they smelled the samples, it is not dependent on their individual ideas of how unpleasant or intense is the smell. Therefore, they are able to express a feeling of disgust, even though before that they were told that a particular pattern of sweat smells nice. Similar examples can be seen in other experiments. In 2006, psychologists at Rice University in Houston, Texas, made an interesting discovery. They found that women who smelled samples of sweat collected from a frightened man (this time the pot was taken in both men and women), to better cope with the task of word associations than those who smelled samples of sweat collected from humans who watched video content neutral. The same thing happened to the people who sniff pads containing no sweat. The signals then sent frightened people, sharpens their perception of the environment. Smelling over speech In 2012, psychologists and psychiatrists from the University of New York took samples of sweat shirts with 64 donors. Half of the donors in these T-shirts for the first time jumped with a parachute from an airplane, and the other half served as intense exercise with increased load. People who smelled samples of sweat paratroopers came in nervous excitement at the sight of evil persons and persons with undetermined and a neutral expression. Psychologists have blamed it on the aggravation of alert: sweat, which were taken from the skydive, urged the participants to pay attention to any possible hidden social cues, which in other circumstances might remain unnoticed. Those who smelled sweat tired of people doing exercise, strained only at the sight of the evil entities that would be expected under any circumstances. However, another experiment that was conducted by German psychologists and neuroscientists showed that the sweat worried men (who participated in the course of walking on a tightrope) forced women to take risky decisions after they spent more time reflecting on their choices in a computer game designed to give assessment of risk-taking behavior. None of these studies has not allowed to determine whether participants are aware of the experiments, the smell of sweat of other people change their behavior and decisions. But the results suggest that at least in some cases, the sweat can convey to others the important information about the internal state of mind of man. They also say that we use the information contained in the sweat of other people, in order to better understand our environment. Perhaps this is not surprising. Our species seems to be adapted to the linguistic and verbal forms of communication, but the language - this is a relatively new tool in our social tools. Therefore, it seems reasonable to imagine that our ancestors enjoyed the full data that they have received by using the sense of smell. And they gave us these skills. In fact, people are obviously better able to recognize the emotions of virtual men on a computer monitor when you can see how sweat cartoon characters. Not only that, but the strengthening of sweat, it seems, allows us to better perceive the depth of the emotions depicted. In other words, not only sends a sweat smell, but also a visual signal. Eventually, the sweat - it is something more than just a system of ventilation and air conditioning of the body. It can be kind of a weather vane, a tool that translates the innermost feelings of a man of his friends and family.



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