Time is a phenomenon, a side effect of the quantum entanglement of particles - VIDEO PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 13 August 2015 13:54
Physicists say: time - a phenomenon occurring side effect of the quantum entanglement of particles. And now they were the world's first experimental results that confirm this. In 1983, theoretical physicists Don Page and William Wouters offer innovative theory based on the phenomenon of quantum entanglement. This exotic property allows two quantum particles have a common existence, even if they are physically separated. Quantum entanglement - a deep and powerful connection, and Page and Wouters demonstrated that it can be used to measure time. Their idea was that the manner in which a pair of entangled particles has evolved, is some kind of hours that can be used to measure time. But it turns out in their conception results depended on how the monitoring was carried out. One way is to compare the change in the entangled particles using an external clock, which is completely independent of the Universe. This is equivalent to a godlike observer outside of the Universe, which measures the evolution of the particles by means of an external clock. In this case, Page and Wouters showed that the particles are completely the same - time in such a scenario would not exist. But there is another method that gives a different result. In it is an internal observer and compares the evolution of particles by the rest of the Universe. In this case, the inner observer will see a change, and this difference in the evolution of particles in comparison with the rest of the time is an important measure. This is an elegant and powerful concept. It suggests that time - is occurring phenomenon that occurs in reality due to the nature of quantum entanglement. And it exists only for the observer within our Universe. Any godlike observer abroad will see a static immutable Universe as first predicted earlier quantum Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Of course, no experimental confirmation of the idea Page and Wouters no more than a philosophical curiosity. And because we have no opportunity to receive an observer outside of the Universe - it seems we do not have, and no chance of ever confirm this theory. At least it was until today. A few days ago Catherine Moreva of Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica in Turin, Italy, and several of her colleagues were able for the first time experimentally test the ideas Page and Wouters. And they have demonstrated that the time is indeed emerging phenomenon for domestic observers, but it does not exist outside observers. This experiment involves the creation of toy Universe, consisting of a pair of entangled photons and the observer, who can measure their status in one of two ways. In the first observer measures the evolution of the system, snarling himself with it. In the second godlike observer measures the evolution in comparison with the external clock, which is completely independent of the toy Universe. The experiment itself is straightforward. Each of entangled photons has a polarization that can be changed by passage through a birefringent plate. In the first case, the observer measures the polarization of a single photon, thereby snarling with it. He then compares the result with the polarization of the second photon. The resulting difference and it will be a measure of time. In the second case, both photons and passes through the birefringent plate, which change their polarization. However, in this case, the observer measures only global properties of both photons, by comparing them with independent clocks. In this case, the observer can not notice any difference between the photons, without coming to a state of confusion with one of them. And if there is no difference, the system appears before them static. In other words - the time it occurs. "Although it is incredibly simple, our model incorporates two contradictory as it seemed before Page's properties mechanism-Wouters," says Moreva. This is a very impressive experiment. The emergence of something is a popular concept in science. In particular, recently, physicists are interested in the idea that gravity is also emerging in this phenomenon. And from here to the idea of ​​a similar mechanism of time was only one step. What's missing gravity arises - is, of course, the experimental demonstration that would show how it works in practice. That is why the work Moreva is so important - it is the first time in the world and puts an abstract exotic idea of ​​the sustainable experimental basis. But perhaps the most important result of this work is that the first time she was able to demonstrate that quantum mechanics and general relativity are not so incompatible. The next step is the further development of the idea, in particular - on a macroscopic level. It is one thing to show how the time appears in photons, and another - to understand how it occurs in humans.



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