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Fish in the deserts are able to hold their breath for five hours - VIDEO PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 08 April 2015 21:00

Fish of the family toothcarps that live in warm ponds near Death Valley in California, are able to hold their breath for five hours. It found zoologists from the University of Nevada as part of its new study.
According to the report submitted by scientists at the annual meeting of Experimental Biology American Physiological community a unique ability Pupfish is an example of the impressive adaptation to rapidly changing environmental conditions.
Lead author Frank van BreUKelen (Frank van BreUKelen) and Hillyard Stanley (Stanley Hillyard) decided to find out as endangered species Pupfish adapted to survival in the last 10,000 years, which is, in fact, quite a short time. During this time, according to zoologists, cool largest lakes turned into a series of small pools with temperatures reaching 35 ° C - almost like a warm bath or hot tub.
"We carefully studied the evolutionary history of these fishes and realized that until recently they lived in cold conditions. In just 10 thoUSAnd years their environment has changed dramatically," - says van BreUKelen.
To changes in the environment Pupfish responded behavioral changes: they have less time to spend in shallow water, where the temperature is higher, looking back only during the breeding season. In warm water fishes have not sweet, and because they have found a special way to adapt to changing environmental conditions - anaerobic respiration. In this case, not used for the oxidation of oxygen and other substances (i.e., actually holds the breath fish).
Property that ichthyologists have found out Pupfish fish in science is called physiological plasticity. Examples of this in the animal kingdom and plant a lot. Physiological plasticity are those species that adapt to winter, as well as animals that eat their brothers and sisters, when not enough resources for everyone to survive.
In the case of Desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), which studied the van BreUKelen and his colleagues, physiological plasticity manifested in the ability to "hold your breath" for a long time (or rather, alternating in warm water aerobic and anaerobic respiration).
Why did members of the species C. macularius feel in warm water, to put it mildly uncomfortable? In these organisms, fish under normal conditions there is a disintegration of inspired oxygen, due to which energy is generated. However, at higher temperatures, the process may be hazardous to minnows as occurs with energy generating free radicals - reactive molecules which damage proteins, DNA and cell membranes.
During the long period of anaerobic organism C. macularius generates ethanol, which is also in the process of decay provides the body with energy without the need to do extra breath. Furthermore, during the metabolism accelerates respiration delay 15 times compared to the normal, which allows faster and produce energy to survive in extreme conditions.
"Sometimes, the body has to choose the lesser of two evils, although it is smaller is not always the ideal choice. We believe that the process of change of aerobic and anaerobic respiration still causes a certain damage to the body of fish, for example, shortening its life" - explains van BreUKelen in a press release.
Sometimes the process can last holding your breath in the desert fish up to five hours.
We add that the reduction in time spent in the spawning grounds, leads to a reduction in the breeding season and almost always leads to disastrous consequences for the population of the species. Pupfish for this behavior at all dangerous, because they are so affected by the destruction of their habitat and competition with introduced by species.
It is unclear whether the extraordinary save manifestation of physiological plasticity Desert pupfish as a species, but it is clear that they are quite well adapted to its peculiar environmental conditions. If the temperature of water bodies and further continue to rise, the tiny fish at this time can not find a suitable conditions for survival, environmentalists are sounding the alarm.


НАЖМИТЕ ЗДЕСЬ ДЛЯ ПРОСМОТРА ВСЕГО СПИСКА НОВОСТЕЙ О НЕОБЫЧНЫХ ЯВЛЕНИЯХ>>>

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