Can black holes destroy the universe - VIDEO PDF Print E-mail
Tuesday, 07 April 2015 03:00

One of the surprises that revealed the Large Hadron Collider, is that the Higgs boson was a bit harder than expected, and this has implications for the structure of our vacuum. Vacuum fill the Higgs, it gives them the mass particles and Higgs filled vacuum is believed to be stable Higgs minimum capacity. If the Higgs will be much harder, as shown by recent data have the potential to be another minimum energies that are lower than the present vacuum. Hence, the vacuum that surrounds us, it is a "false vacuum" and it is metastable, is not perfect. Our false vacuum will eventually disintegrate into a lower energy state of "true vacuum", and this process is accompanied by the release of energy that will break all related to the particles of matter today.

The list of events that deserve the name of "Doomsday", "vacuum decay" comes immediately after the "big crunch."

Measuring the mass of the Higgs and other parameters that determine the potential, we can calculate how long it takes for our vacuum decay. False vacuum decays with local tunneling in the true vacuum, then creates a bubble that is expanding rapidly and fills the entire Universe. When the Higgs symmetry was broken for the first time, there was something like that may have led to the dominance of matter over antimatter in the Universe.

In our current Universe time it takes to happen tunneling depends on the height of the potential wall between the true and the false vacuum, where we are now. Estimates show that from what we know about the time of the collapse, it has to be several orders of magnitude longer than the age of our Universe. Even so, if the vacuum eventually fall apart, it will happen after the star will burn all of the fuel and life in the Universe will become impossible. Reasons for concern, in principle, no.

Or is there?

Quantum tunneling

In a recent paper last week entitled "Vacuum metastability black holes", a group of scientists from the UK and Canada noted that the assessment of the rate of decay of the vacuum does not take into account that the gravitational field can serve as seeds, embryos vacuum decay and thus significantly increase the existing vacuum instability. In its work, Burda, Gregory Moss and calculated the probability that the false vacuum tunnels in the true vacuum, and came to the conclusion that it is much higher in the presence of black holes, rather than in their absence. Using a number of parameter sets the Higgs potential, comparable with existing data, they estimated the decay time as roughly comparable to the decay time of the black hole through Hawking radiation.

Probable tunneling process, which can occur near the black hole depends on the mass of the black hole. Large black holes have a small curvature on the horizon, because the tunneling probability is low and the temperature is low Hawking. As the black hole loses mass through evaporation, temperature increases, and with it the probability of tunneling. When a large mass of the most probable state in which the false vacuum tunnels will be true vacuum with a black hole, which is low in weight. If the mass is sufficiently small, likely to occur during a bubble tunneling true vacuum. In any case, the true Evacuation will start to soar.

This suggests that, where the rate of vacuum decay rate of more Hawking radiation, vacuum can become unstable near the edge of a black hole - and expand into extremely fast - when the black hole is close to complete evaporation.

How long will the black hole to evaporate and become small enough to run the vacuum decay? This depends on the initial mass of the black hole. The larger the black hole, the greater the need of time. All black holes that we have seen - black hole with the mass of the Sun and supermassive black holes - so heavy that currently do not evaporate - their temperature below the temperature of the cosmic microwave background. They do not lose weight, and grow.

Nevertheless, it was suggested that small black holes could be formed in the very young Universe of large density fluctuations. These black holes are called "primary" black holes, and they may have any weight today. If they exist, some have disappeared or evaporate now. The signatures of these black holes were trying to find, but have not yet found, although it is believed that korotkoperiodichnye gamma-ray bursts may come from such events.

If the calculation of the new document is correct, we can conclude that our Universe simply did not have black holes that have evaporated completely, because then we would have no more. Since the distribution of primary black hole mass is unknown, but some of them may be close to the final stage of evaporation, heralding the end of the world as we know it.

Sounds awful, and it's true. But there are other arguments.

The Large Hadron Collider

Firstly, primordial black holes, strictly speaking, not very highly valued among cosmologists. The reason is that it is difficult to find a model in which they could be made without making much. In order to form them, the Universe was born with the density fluctuations of 68% denser than average, while the primary fluctuations that we see at 0.003% denser medium. More importantly, the parameters of the Higgs potential, which are included in the rate of decay of the vacuum, based on the assumption that the Standard Model is a complete theory up to the scale at which quantum gravity becomes relevant. But it is extremely doubtful. Moreover, many believe that this is not so.

Oh, and how about a tiny black holes at the LHC, which were to eat our planet in 2008? There is absolutely no evidence that the LHC has made at least one such, and the very idea seems very doubtful, although exclude it is not worth it. Can these black holes start vacuum decay?

Based on current calculations Burda and his colleagues such a conclusion can be drawn. Not only because these black holes LHC will be more dimension, but also the vacuum should be more dimension, and hence the theory is different. It seems incredible that microscopic black holes, even if it will be produced by the LHC, can be harmful, for obvious reasons: the LHC operates in the energy regime in which astrophysical collisions occur constantly. They not generate events that are unprecedented in the history of the Universe. If Bourdieu's theory reveal, but rather eliminate the possibility of the creation of black holes at the LHC with its energy.

The work of scientists has the potential to develop into a very fruitful connection between cosmology, astrophysics and collider experiments that we spend on Earth.



Related news items:
Newer news items:
Older news items:


Add comment