Top 10 most bizarre explanation for the lack of aliens - VIDEO PDF Print E-mail
Tuesday, 17 March 2015 00:00

Most people take it for granted that we still do not come into contact with an extraterrestrial civilization. However, they do not know that it would be time. Our galaxy is so old that its every corner had to visit many, many times to the present time. None of the theories put forward so far, can not satisfactorily explain this great silence. We thoroughly studied the possible explanations for the Fermi paradox, but now it looks like it's time to turn to the most impossible options.

When solutions have even on paper, it can be completely arbitrary. The standard explanation for the Fermi paradox is well known, we are not going to use it. Among them - the hypothesis of "rare earth" (the assumption that life - extremely rare), the complexity of the concept of space travel and insanely long distances, the hypothesis of the Great Filter (assumption that all sufficiently advanced civilizations destroy themselves before will go on an intergalactic level), or we're just not interesting enough.

But sometimes the answer to a strange question can be as strange. In this context, the question "Where is everybody?" Will be very strange, because it has not yet found the answers. And here are the options.

Zoo hypothesis

While all of this sounds like the plot of the episode "Twilight Zone", it is possible that we are stuck in some celestial cell. Extraterrestrials might stumble on our blue ball a long time ago, but for some reason, watching us from a distance. Maybe we are just for fun (like monkeys in a zoo) or we need them for scientific purposes. Whatever it was, they can hurt us and try not to get in touch.

This idea was first proposed by John Ball in 1973, who claimed that extraterrestrial intelligent life may be ubiquitous, but "unsuccessful attempts to contact us can be understood in the context of what they left us aside as reserve or a zoo." We can be part of a huge reserve, beyond which there is little, or those limits are sufficient for the development of intelligent life unflappable. This idea is directly corresponds to the "First Directive" from "star Trek" - civilization left to themselves, until they reach a certain level of technological development. The same ideas hold UFOlogists, claiming that aliens everywhere, but watching us from a distance.

Voluntary quarantine

It's kind of the opposite of the hypothesis of the zoo. aliens can be quite dangerous. Extremely dangerous. Thus, instead of driving around the galaxy in spacecraft and hope that each counter will superdruzhelyubnym, extraterrestrials collectively and independently came to the conclusion to sit quietly and not attract attention.

Why not? It would be quite reasonable to conclude, especially in light of the Fermi paradox, that space is teeming with danger - whether imperialist civilization on the march or war-berserker probes, sterilizing everything in its path. To be sure that nobody will disturb them, advanced extraterrestrial civilizations can build the perimeter of the probes Sandburg (self-replicating probes police) to make sure that no one will take place.

Hypothesis flies at gunpoint

Imagine acts a kind of "first directive", but extraterrestrials hanging over us with giant hammers, ready to kill us as soon as something goes wrong, as they want. These aliens are something like Gort from "Day the Earth Stood Still", will try to keep the peace of the galaxy at all costs. "There is no limit to what can be done Gort - Klaatu said. - He could destroy the earth. " What awaits Gort or other advanced extraterrestrial civilization? Perhaps the technological singularity. Singularity can lead to artificial superintelligence (ISI), which may become a threat to the entire galaxy. Thus, to prevent the development of bad intelligence - and giving a good chance for the development of intelligence - galactic Hammer listed and waiting for the signal.

We are made of meat

Just read a small part of a short story by Terry Beeson, nominated for several awards.

- They meat.

- Meat?

- Yes I Am. They're made out of meat.

- From meat ?!

- Error eliminated. We picked up a few copies from different parts of the world, was taken on board our ship, reconnaissance and properly tested. They are completely out of meat.

- But this is incredible! But what about radio? A message to the stars?

- To communicate, they use radio waves, but does not send signals themselves. The signals come from machines.

- But who is building these machines? That's who need a contact!

- They are building. What am I to you and talking about. Meat makes the machine.

- What nonsense! How can meat make a machine? You want me to believe in the meat with memory and feelings?

- Nothing, I do not want to. Just tell what is. This - the only reasonable being generally sector, and thus consist of meat.

- Maybe they like orfoleev? You know, this carbon intelligence that goes into the development process meat phase?

- Oh, no. They're born meat and they die meat. We have studied them in the course of several life cycles - which they, incidentally, is quite short. You do, can you imagine how many lives meat?

- Oh, spare me ... Okay. Maybe they do not completely meat? Well, remember how the ... veddilei. Meat head with an electron plasma brain inside.

- Oh, no! At first we thought so too. Once they head meat. But then, as I said, each tested. From top to bottom. Everywhere solid meat. Outside that is inside.

- And what about the brain?

- A brain is all right. But also from the meat.

- Where do ideas come from ?!

- You do not understand, do you? Thoughts produce brain. Meat.

- Thoughts from meat? You want me to believe in a reasonable meat?

- Yes, dammit! Reasonable meat. Meat with feelings. With conscience. Meat that is dreaming. All - solid meat. To think?

- Oh, my God ... Are you serious?

- Absolutely. They earnestly made of meat, and the last one hundred years of its attempt to get in touch.

- What do they want?

- To begin with - to talk ... Then, apparently, rummage through the Universe, scientists go to other worlds and steal their ideas with data. Just like always.

- So, we will have to talk with meat?

- That's the thing. So they repeat a message: "Hello! Is there anyone alive? Anybody home? "- And other trash.

- That is really talking? With words, ideas and concepts?

- And how. Especially with the surrounding meat ...

- But you said that they use the radio!

- Yes, but ... What do you think, they clog the air? Meat sounds. Plyamkane know it when spanked meat on meat? That's how they pereshlepyvayutsya with the other sisters. And even sing, passing through the meat streams of compressed air.

- It's crazy. Singing meat! This is too much ... And what do you advise?

- Officially, or between us?

- And this way and that.

- Officially, we are supposed to get in touch, welcome them and open access to the full register of thinking beings and mnogosuschnostnyh minds in this sector - without prejudice, fear and concessions on our part. But if between us - I would have erased the hell out of all of their data and forget about them forever.

- I was hoping you'd say that.

- The measure, of course, forced. But there is a limit! Have we so want to get acquainted with the meat?

- I agree one hundred percent! Well, we say to them: "Hey, meat! How are you? "And then what? How many planets are already settled?

- Only one. They can travel in special metal containers, but to live permanently in a way not. Besides, being meat, they can move only in C. It does not give them the speed of light - and thus, the probability of entering the contact they simply negligible. More precisely, the infinitely small.

- So we'd better make it appear that there is no one in the Universe?

- That's it.

- Brutally ... On the other hand, you're right: who wants to meet with the meat? And those who were taken on board for testing - are you sure that they do not remember anything?

- If anyone remembers - all the same it will take for a psycho. We have got to him in the head and smoothed the meat so that they perceived us as a dream.

- Dreams have meat ... Just think - we remove the meat!

- And this whole sector on the map can be noted as a desert.

- Very Well! I totally agree. Both formally and between us. case closed. Others do not? What's more fun on the other side of the galaxy?

Simulation Hypothesis

We have no one visited, because we live in a computer simulation - and this model does not contain any extraterrestrial companions for us.

If this is true, it implies a few important things. Firstly, these bandits - or gods, how you look - all arranged in such a way that we are the only civilization in the whole galaxy (or even the Universe). Or this Universe there's just no, here we think the world is huge, but it is modeled bubble. If a tree falls in the forest, but no one hears the sound of his fall, whether it makes a sound?

Another possibility is strange that this simulation is running posthuman civilization in search of an answer to the Fermi paradox, or even some strange question. Perhaps trying to test various hypotheses (even preemptively considering a course of action), they run a billion different simulators, trying to determine the dates of their options.

The silence in the air

This theory is similar to the hypothesis of the quarantine, but not so paranoid. Not so, but paranoid. It is possible that all of us are listening, but no one is trying to contact. And for a very good reason.

David Brin suggests that the practice of Active SETI is similar to the cry of the jungle (Active SETI - the deliberate transmission of high power radio signals towards the possible stellar systems with life). Michael Michaud says exactly the same: "Let's be honest, Active SETI - it is not a scientific study. This is a deliberate attempt to provoke a reaction from an alien civilization whose capabilities, intentions and distance from us we do not know. This is a political problem. " Concern is expressed mainly in the fact that we can attract the attention premature. Perhaps one day we will not make any contact with extraterrestrials. But what if every civilization in space has gone through exactly the same steps? This means that the air is calm. "

Perhaps even listening ether can be dangerous: what is the guarantee that the SETI will not load a malicious virus from outer space?

All aliens - homebody

This option is not as many countries as possible. Advanced extraterrestrial beings on reaching civilization type II on a scale Kardashev may lose all galactic ambitions. As soon as the built Dyson sphere or something like that, unknown to us at the aliens begin unknown to us fun. Massive supercomputers can simulate Universes within Universes, life cycles within the life cycle. The rest of the Universe will seem boring and empty. Space will become a mirror.

We can not read the signs

It is possible that the signs and signals from extraterrestrial civilizations around us, but we just do not see. Or we are silly to notice them, or we need additional technology. In accordance with the current approach of SETI, we need to listen to while waiting radiosignatur. But civilization, which are much more developed we can use a completely different technique. They can signal lasers, for example. Lasers are good because are tightly focused beams with excellent ability to transmit information. They can also penetrate through the dusty interstellar medium.

Or extraterrestrial civilizations may use "business cards", using direct detection methods (ie build massive ideal geometric structures like a triangle or a square in orbit around its star).

Stephen Webb pointed out that some potential have electromagnetic signals, gravitational signals, elementary particles, tachyons, something else that we have not yet discovered. It may well be the radio, but we do not know at what frequency to tune (the electromagnetic spectrum is very wide). In the end, we can find posts where least expected - even in the code of their DNA.

They're all on the edge of the galaxy

This is an interesting solution to the Fermi paradox suggested Milan Cirkovic and Robert Bradbury.

"We believe that the outer region of the galactic disk are the most likely places for advanced search SETI», - they wrote. The fact that the complex intelligence community will tend to migrate outwardly through the galaxy increasing their information processing capability. How Come? Because civilization with the machines at the base, with their powerful supercomputers, will have serious problems with heat. They will have to camp there, where it will be cool. And the outer rim of the galaxy is fine.

In addition, the post-singular extraterrestrial civilizations may well live in places other than those where he lives a life based on meat. From here advanced civilization will have no interest to investigate the habitable zones, human biological beings. Maybe we're looking in the wrong place. Stephen Wolfram once said that one day will be possible without the computation of heat, so this option is the explanation of the Fermi paradox it will not work.

Directed panspermia

Perhaps we can not contact with extraterrestrial civilizations, because they themselves are of them. Or are they our ancestors. According to this theory, first proposed by Francis Crick, the aliens are sowing the sparks of life on other planets (sending, for example, the debate on the potentially fertile planet), and then leave. Forever And Ever. Or to return someday.

This idea is very popular in science fiction circles.

Bonus. Phase transition hypothesis

This hypothesis is similar to the hypothesis of "rare earth", but suggests that the Universe is still evolving and changing. Conditions to support the development of intelligence emerged only recently. Cosmologist James Annis calls this model the phase transition of the Universe - a kind of astrophysical explanation for the paradox of the great cosmic silence.

According to Annis, a possible regulatory mechanism that can explain all of this, is the frequency of gamma-ray bursts - sverhkatastroficheskih events that literally sterilized large areas of the galaxy.

"If we assume that they are lethal to terrestrial life throughout the galaxy, it will take only one mechanism that will prevent the growth of intelligence at some point, from time to time." In other words, gamma-ray bursts happen too often, and intelligent life perishes before has an opportunity to move between galaxies. However, since the frequency of the gamma-ray bursts falls over time, can all vary.

"Galaxy is currently undergoing a phase transition from a state of equilibrium in which there is no intelligence in another state, full of intelligent life," - said Annis.

And then all will be well.

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