Manage an objects can be the power of thought - VIDEO PDF Print E-mail
Tuesday, 17 February 2015 08:29

Is it possible to play chess without touching the figures, and to operate the machine without touching the steering wheel? The man wears a special cap with electrodes focuses strongly thinking about something - and there is a small miracle: turn on the TV itself, the letters are formed on the screen in the words puzzle going into a picture or, for example, toy car is going in the right direction. How to manage objects by thought and what does it do?

Meets Alexander Yakovlevich Kaplan - Professor, Head of the Laboratory of Neurophysiology and neurointerface biological faculty of Moscow State University. MV University:

"Nerve cells communicate with each other by electrical impulses, these echoes of the electrical life of the brain, we can catch and register on the surface of the head. This is a classic method of EEG (electroencephalogram), which is used in clinics. But we decided to try to use it as commands for external actuators. For example, using these signals turn on the TV, turn the washing machine, run some unit ... It is only necessary to decipher the signs of the appearance of the EEG in the person's intentions - for example, to compress the right hand or to print the letter "A". If you know the codes, then it is a matter of equipment connected to these codes actuators: manipulator, direct-printing device, prosthesis, and so on. D.

How does it look? At the head of the test is put a cap with pre-built into it the contact electrodes. These contacts are lubricated electrolyte gel for a better fit to the scalp. The more electrodes, the more information can be removed. And electrode 128 can be connected, but for practicality they should use as less as possible. Scientists have even arranged a competition, how can a smaller number of electrodes to achieve reliable decoding of human intentions. We have one of the best systems: a total of six electrodes.

The electrodes pick up the brain action currents amplitude of a few microvolts, that is a million times less than that given by penlight batteries. Therefore, the electrodes are connected to the device, which enhances these mikrosignaly converts them into series of numbers for subsequent computer processing. In our system, the most advanced signaling occurs wirelessly using even ordinary smartphones.

Of course, a healthy person do not need to turn on the TV biocurrents brain - or, in fact, the power of thought. He makes it easily with one finger. But in my laboratory, these technologies are designed to help hundreds of thoUSAnds of patients after a stroke, which often can not only move, but also to speak.

Another project is our medical neyrotrenazher. Imagine that the patient does not work after stroke brush. In the first months after the stroke he needed targeted training when his intention to squeeze the brush must be accompanied by at least a minimum finger movements. We substitute the mechanical structure to the fingers, which fingers flexes passively in response to signals directly recorded from the brain. Now, the brain is no longer throw a workout, as his every effort to activate the brush is accompanied by real action. There is a chance that at least workouts gradually adjusted activation of the muscles themselves and exoskeletal structure can be discarded as crutches.

Practically completed project neyrokommunikatora: you can sit down at the computer and, without touching the keyboard, type the text the power of thought. It is not psychic, it employs all of the same electrical signals in the brain. Man focuses on the backlit letters, specify the full alphabet on the screen. Print power of thought is not as fast as typing fingers, but this technology is very important for post-stroke patients, which is fully conscious, sometimes for many years could not express their wishes. Now we teach patients of this technology-based clinics and another center. The Ministry of Health supports this work in our organization and in financial terms. We hope that it will help many patients in hospitals and at home.

In the life of a healthy person IMC also come. We live in a two-dimensional manipulator world, everything is done by two hands. But we do not interfere with the third and fourth. For example, we have revived the manipulator. He can play chess, I command him in mind, "E2 - E4" and he rearrange figure. Or I thought, "Forward. Below. Grab! "- He fulfills. The same technology can be used for specific actions. For example: when the phone rang, the idea - "phone", and pointing straight sticks under my ear tube, I write, speak, and when the conversation is over, he takes the phone. Or will carts, which will host on my desk: something to submit something to attribute something pushes. It will. And we get used to the third or fourth hand.

The problem is that mental images are very poorly reflected in the electrical activity of the brain. And you want to apply all the ingenuity, the full force of Algorithmics for their decryption. It turned out, for example, that the image of "Mandarin" and "orange" no means impossible to discern in the EEG. When a person imagines tangerine, orange, apple or watermelon - responses in the EEG are all equal. But scientists have found that body image can be recognized. For example, if you think, "I clench my right hand" or "I clench my left hand" - echoes of these images can be fixed in the EEG. And then you can use the codes: for example, if I squeeze his right hand - it will be a signal to turn on the TV. A left hand, for example - to turn off the washing machine.

Now we are creating consumer versions of our technologies: Makes your device wirelessly with a compact amplifier, Velcro attachable to the bandana around his head with electrodes embedded in it. "



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