TOP 10 unsolved mysteries of the solar system - VIDEO PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 06 February 2015 13:17

Despite the fact that humanity is due to powerful telescopes and numerous space missions will learn many interesting things about our solar system, there are still many questions and mysteries that have baffled even the most eminent scientists of our time. And the more we study the cosmos, the greater mysteries, he presents us. To discover the ten most interesting mysteries of our solar system that have not yet been able to solve even the best minds of our planet.
An invisible shield that surrounds the Earth.

In 1958, James Van Allen of the University of Iowa found a couple of radiation rings encircling the planet at an altitude of 40,000 kilometers and consisting of electrons and high-energy protons. Keeps the rings around the planet Earth's magnetic field. Observation of the rings showed that they then compressed, then expand under the influence of the energy emitted solar flares.

In 2013, Daniel Baker of the University of Colorado found between the inner and outer Van Allen radiation rings the third structure. Baker called this structure as a "storage ring", working to expand and contract as an invisible shield that blocks the effects of the "deadly electrons." These electrons located at an altitude of 16,000 kilometers, can be devastating not only for the people in the space, but also for various equipment of space satellites.

At an altitude of just over 11,000 kilometers above the planet's surface is formed by the boundary of the inner ring whose outer contour blocks electrons and does not allow them to penetrate deeper into our atmosphere.

"These electrons as if faced with a glass wall. Something around our planet creates a kind of force field, which we could see in various science fiction films. This is an incredibly mysterious phenomenon, "- says Baker.

Scientists have developed several theories that one way or another part could explain the essence of the invisible shield. However, none of these theories is not final and confirmed.

anomalies acceleration

To send a spacecraft to the farthest reaches of our solar system, scientists use special gravitational maneuvers, cycling gravitational energy of the planet or Moon to accelerate. However, scientists, as it turns out, is not always able to accurately calculate the rate of acceleration of the spacecraft during such maneuvers. Sometimes it happens that the calculated speed does not match the previously stated. Such inconsistencies are called "anomalous acceleration."

Now scientists have only the possibility to calculate the exact difference in speed during acceleration due to the Earth's gravitational energy. However, even in this case the unexpected happens, such as happened with the probe NASA «Cassini" in 1999, whose flight speed due to unclear circumstances was delayed by 2 millimeters per second. Another incident occurred in 1998, when the spacecraft NEAR of the same NASA received inexplicable acceleration by 13 millimeters per second is higher compared to the previously announced estimates.

"These unexplained differences in the estimated and actual speed does not play a major role in changing the trajectory of the spacecraft," - says Louis Acedo Rodriguez, a physicist at the Polytechnic University of Valencia.

"While these anomalous differences are less common, given the risks, it is important to know what they are called."

Scientists at one time offered various theories about what may be caused by these anomalies. In the perpetrators and put solar radiation, dark matter and captured gravity of the planet, but the exact cause of this phenomenon, nobody knows. So far.

Great Red Spot of Jupiter

With great red spot on Jupiter, the fifth planet from the Sun, is due just two unresolved mysteries. The first mystery is the fact why this giant hurricane never stops? It is so huge that within him could fit at least two planets the size of our Earth.

"According to current theories, the Great Red Spot on Jupiter was to disappear after a few decades. However, this storm lasts for several centuries ", - said Pedro Hassanzadeh from Harvard University.

There are several theories that attempt to explain it so high duration. According to one of these theories, long-lived giant hurricane absorbs smaller tornadoes formed near, absorbing their energy. Another theory proposed in 2013 he Hassanzadeh. According to her, the movement of the vortex flows of cold gas from the bottom up and top down hot gases inside this giant hurricane can recover some of the energy in the center. And yet, none of the proposed theories finally decide on this puzzle.

The second riddle is the Great Red Spot is connected with the source of his color. One theory suggests that the red color is caused by chemical elements, hiding the visible clouds of gas giant. However, some scholars argue that the movement of chemical elements up would be a consequence of a deep red hue of the vortex at all altitudes.

One of the last hypothesis states that the Great Red Spot of Jupiter is a "Sunburn" of the upper layer of clouds, and the lower layers are white, or rather, a grayish color. Scientists who support this theory believe that red vortex formed as a result of exposure to ultraviolet light from the Sun filtering through the ammonia gas composition of the upper atmosphere of Jupiter.

Weather Titan

As on Earth, Titan has its seasons. Titan is the only satellite in our solar system, has a dense atmosphere. Each season on Titan is about seven years on earth (Titanium, recall, is a satellite of Saturn, which is to turn around the Sun requires 29 Earth years).

Last change of seasons on Titan took place in 2009. In its northern hemisphere winter gave way to spring, while in the southern part of the summer gave way to autumn satellite. However, in May 2012 during the autumn season in the southern hemisphere spacecraft "Cassini" took photos of the giant polar vortex formed on the south pole of the satellite. Seeing those pictures, scientists have been puzzled by the fact that the vortex formed at an altitude of 300 kilometers above the surface of Titan. The reason was puzzlement in height and temperature of the region where the vortex is formed - they were too high.

By analyzing the spectral data of colors of Sunlight, reflects the atmosphere of Titan, scientists were able to detect signs of the presence of particles of hydrogen cyanide. And his presence, in turn, would mean that all our understanding of Titan is fundamentally wrong. The presence of hydrogen cyanide must say that the upper layers of the atmosphere of the satellite should be at 100 degrees Celsius colder than previously thought. If you change the atmosphere of the season in the southern hemisphere of Titan began to cool faster than expected.

Since the circulation of the atmosphere during the changing of the season driving a huge amount of gas to the south, the concentration of hydrogen cyanide increases and cools a nearby air. Reducing exposure to Sunlight during the winter season also cools the southern hemisphere. This assumption, as well as many other mysteries of Titan, scientists are going to check on the day of the summer solstice, which will occur on Saturn in 2017.

Source ultraenergeticheskogo cosmic radiation

Cosmic radiation is a high-energy radiation, fully understood by science. One of the main mysteries of astrophysics is the origin of the ultraenergeticheskoe cosmic radiation and how it may contain such an incredible amount of energy. This is the most highly charged particles known in our Universe. Watch their movements, scientists can only when they hit the upper layers of the planet, bursting into even smaller particles and causing a sharp pulse of radio waves, lasting no more than a few nanoseconds.

However, in order to follow the world, where do these particles is impossible. The area of the largest detector detection of these particles on the Earth is only about 3,000 square kilometers, which is approximately equal to the area of small country of Luxembourg. To solve this problem, scientists plan through the construction of "square kilometer lattice» (SKA) - a highly sensitive radio interferometer, through which the Moon (yes, our natural satellite) will turn into a giant cosmic ray detector.

Square kilometer grid will use the entire visible portion of the Moon's surface to detect radio signals of high-energy particles. Thanks SKA scientists plan to fix up to 165 events associated with high-energy particles, which, of course, many times more than they are able to do now.

"Cosmic radiation energy of this type are so rare that you need to be in possession of an incredibly huge detector able to collect the required amount of information with which you can really work" - explains Dr. Justin Bray from the University of Southampton.

"But the size of the Moon eclipse any other size ever built particle detectors. If we succeed, it will be the best opportunity to find out where these particles come from. "

radio silence Venus

Venus has a hot, dense atmosphere consisting of clouds, hiding her face from the line of sight. Until now, the only way to map the surface of this planet is the radar method. When the spacecraft "Magellan" Venus visited 20 years ago, scientists are interested in the two mysteries of the planet, which remained unsolved until now.

The first mystery is that the higher the terrain surface of the planet, the better ("brighter") reflects the direction of the surface of the radio wave. Something similar is happening in our world, but with the visible light. The higher we go, the lower the temperature becomes. The higher the mountain, the more and thicker snow caps. A similar effect occurs on Venus, the surface of which we can not see in visible light. Scientists believe that the reason for this effect is the process of chemical weathering, temperature-dependent or type of precipitation of heavy metals, which act as metal caps, reflecting radio signals.

The second mystery is the presence of Venus radar gaps in the uplands the planet's surface. Scientists see a poor reflection of signals at an altitude of 2400 meters, then a sharp jump in signal reflections when climbing up to 4500 meters. However, from 4700 meters is a sharp increase in the gaps of the reflected signals. Sometimes the number of gaps in the hundreds. Signals are like the void.

Blobs of light on the F-ring of Saturn

Comparing recently received spacecraft "Cassini" data with information from "Voyager" 30 years ago, scientists found a decrease manifestations of bright bunches on the F-ring of Saturn (although the total number of clusters remains unchanged). As researchers found, F-ring is capable of change. In this case, do it very quickly. Evidence for a few days.

"This observation gives us another riddle of our solar system, which is worth to solve," - says Robert French of the SETI Institute in California.

Some of the rings of Saturn are composed of ice blocks with dimensions similar to a large boulder. However, the F-ring of the planet is composed of ice particles whose size is no more than dust. For this reason, scientists are often referred to as F-ring "dust ring". When you look at this ring will be seen dim glow.

Sometimes ice particles near the ring are connected and form large ice coma - tiny Moons of Saturn. When these tiny satellites are faced with the bulk of the F-ring, then pushed him out of the particles that form it. The result is a bright flash. The amount of these bursts depends on the number of tiny satellites. At least so says one of the theories.

However, according to another theory, F-ring of Saturn was formed relatively recently. And it was formed as a result of the destruction of a large icy satellites of the planet. In this case, changes in the F-ring occur due to its development. Scientists have not yet decided which of the theories is more like the truth. Need more observations of F-ring of the planet.

Imaginary geysers Europe

In late 2013, scientists announced that the space telescope "Hubble" found on the surface of the south pole of Europe, the ice of Jupiter's Moon, escaping to a height of 200 kilometers geysers. Suddenly, the search for extraterrestrial life sciences potentially become easier. After orbiter could fly through these geysers and collect samples of oceanic Europe to search for signs of life and at the same time without having to land on the ice surface.

However, further observations of Europe showed no evidence of water vapor. Re-analysis of previously collected data generally questioned the information on whether any of these geysers. Some scholars also suggest that examining in October 1999 and in November 2012 Europe "Hubble" found no geysers.

"Detection" Geysers in Europe turned out this mystery. Space agency NASA plans to send a robotic probe of Jupiter's satellites, whose task will be to understand the reality or unreality of observation.

Methane on Mars

Rover "Kyuriositi" since his stay on the Red Planet have not noticed signs of methane on Mars, but after 8 months after its landing scientists were surprised that the rover has fixed its sensitivity. On Earth, more than 90 percent in the atmosphere of methane produced by living beings. It is for this reason that scientists in whatever was decided to find out where the same could take methane on Mars and that would cause his sudden release into the atmosphere of the Red Planet.

According to those same researchers, the fact there are several possible reasons. One such example would be the presence of the planet methane-producing bacteria or methanogenic. Another possible cause may be a hydrogen-rich meteorites, which occasionally penetrate the atmosphere of Mars and are, in fact, a kind of organic bombs, releasing methane when heated to extreme temperatures by ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. Theories on this question a lot and one more beautiful than the other.

Mars second puzzle is that there is not only methane, but also disappears. When Mars space probe failed to detect signs of methane after its originally found there, scientists put this fact in the present impasse. If you believe the science, methane can not disappear from the planet in just a few years. The process of decomposition of the chemical from the atmosphere would require about 300 years. Therefore, the scientists have a question: Was there any really discovered methane on Mars?

Nevertheless, some of the methane emissions were indeed confirmed. As to where he then gone: maybe Martian winds continuously distilled from the methane molecule sensitive sensors "Kyuriositi"? Yet this does not explain certain observations of an orbiting planet space probe.

Life on Ceres

Space Research unit Dawn space agency NASA in a hurry to meet Ceres, a dwarf planet, located in our solar system. To her space probe is scheduled to arrive in March 2015. Almost everything we know about Ceres, remains a mystery to scientists. Unlike protoplanet Vesta, Dawn which visited on the way to Ceres, Ceres is not associated with any stories about meteorites and comets that could form its structure.

And while the West remains very dry asteroid is believed that Ceres is composed of rock and ice and may contain under its ice cap liquid ocean of water. Scientists assume that the water in one form or another is up to 40 percent of its staff. Ceres, according to science, is the second planet (after the Earth), or any other cosmic body containing such huge reserves of water in our solar system. However, the exact amount of water until scientists learn failed. Perhaps the Dawn spacecraft will help resolve this issue, as well as to answer the question of why so different from Ceres Vesta.

Both dwarf planets may contain important information about the life on Earth. And Ceres in this respect is the most mysterious. Can this protoplanet support life? As far as scientists know, there are three components necessary for life: energy source, liquid water and chemical building blocks, such as carbon.



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