Scientific theories that hurt people most - VIDEO PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 08 January 2015 16:21

I have not been defeated. I just found 10,000 ways that do not work - optimistically declared the American inventor Thomas Edison. Scientists in search of objective truth, not just put forward

false hypothesis or do the wrong conclusions from their observations. Some of them were so far from the truth that humanity inflicted serious damage. Look At Me remembered more

such theories.

Key points: the connection of the human psyche with the structure of the surface of his skull

Chief theorist of phrenology Austrian Franz Joseph Gall believed
that mental properties, thoughts and emotions inherent in both hemispheres of the brain, and with a strong manifestation of some features is reflected in the shape of the skull. Gall painted "phrenological

map ": the area of temples, for example, is responsible for the passion for wine and food, the occipital part - for friendship and sociability, and the zone of" love of life "is located reason behind the ear.

According to Gallo, every bump on the skull - a sign of high development of mental traits and depression - lack of its manifestations. All this reminds hirosofiyu - the doctrine of communication forms and lines on the hand

palms with character, outlook and destiny of man.

Phrenology was incredibly popular at the beginning of the XIX century: this theory fond of many slave owners in the south United States, because the material for experiments they have always been close at hand. In the film "Django

liberated "disgusting hero Leonardo DiCaprio is also studying phrenology. This science is closely related to the theory of racial and other pseudo-scientific justification for discrimination. In the same

"Django" slave owner Calvin Candie using skull explains why blacks are predisposed by nature to be slaves.

Mass hobby phrenology sharply declined with the development of neurophysiology in 1840: it has been proven that mental properties of the individual does not depend on the relief surface of the brain, or from

skull shape.

Focal sepsis (the theory of focal infection)

Key points: mental
and physical illnesses are due to toxins absorbed into the bloodstream from the source of inflammation in the body. To cure the disease, it is necessary to find and neutralize the guilty organ.

The theory of focal sepsis gained popularity in the middle of the XIX century and lasted until World War II. Because of her huge number of people have made unnecessary surgery and caused injury. doctors

believed that the focus of an accumulation of bacteria inside the body may be the cause of mental retardation, arthritis and cancer. As a result, tooth removal, appendix, parts of the intestines and other potentially dangerous

bodies become common practice.

At the beginning of the XX century English physician William Hunter wrote an article about the fact that all diseases are caused by inadequate oral hygiene and dental treatment of the patient is meaningless, because it does not eliminate the hearth

infection. As a result, in Europe and America for suspected caries patients began to remove teeth, tonsils and adenoids.

In 1940 it was shown that focal infection theory is untenable. Operations harm to the patient, toxins, supposedly evolved other infected teeth, could not affect the psyche, and in

most cases, patients can help sparing diet and other methods of treatment.

Despite the denial of the theory, a few more decades to children without the need for a tonsillectomy and adenoids for the prevention of angina (but then bought ice cream).

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

The theory of motivation based on the pyramid of needs, has little to do with research Abraham Maslow, the founder of humanistic psychology.

Maslow himself believed that a standardized hierarchy of needs can not exist, since it depends on the individual person. In addition, his research focused

certain types of people, and varied depending on the age group.

According to Maslow, the group needs become important in the process of growing up. For example, young children need time to eat and sleep during the day, young people important to gain respect among

peers and people in middle age - to experience the satisfaction of their position in the family and in society. Attention scientist initially focused on self-actualization - the top of the pyramid,

that is, the human desire for self-expression and personal development. The object of his research have been active and successful creative people - such as Albert Einstein and Abraham Lincoln.

pyramid - an artificially constructed simplification does not give an idea of the needs of most people. Using Maslow's pyramid as a scientific base in management, marketing and

social planning in most cases does not give the desired results, but provides space for speculation. No wonder: the hierarchy of needs theory itself, upon which

constructed pyramid, has not been confirmed by empirical studies.

The theory of effective communication Dale Carnegie

Key points: the rejection of his own "I"

Well-known American expert in the field of communication described his theory of effective communication in the books with the telling name, such as "How to Win Friends and Influence People"

"How to Stop Worrying and start Living." His works were to help people become happy, easy to find common ground and avoid conflicts.

Carnegie ideas about success were incredibly influential. Until now, many people believe that a successful (and so happy) people should be able to speak in public, to actively make new acquaintances,

fascinate interlocutors and to devote themselves to work. But the concept of success that so famously operated Carnegie can not be standardized, as well as personal performance criteria (on it and


Modern psychologists point to the many mistakes made by Carnegie in his theory of happiness "self-maid." In his works, Carnegie systematically encourages abandon his own "I" to

make communication more effective. This is his main mistake.

Perceiving the value system of another person in order to please him, people will actually be able to manipulate the interlocutor and use it for their own purposes. But the rejection of their own opinions and

opportunity to express its bad effect on the psyche. As a result of accumulated stress, feelings of depression and not met the criteria of success translate into psychosomatic disorders.

Simply put, trying to become successful at Carnegie artificial help to achieve goals, but do not make people happier.

Advice Carnegie "Smile!" Is well suited extrovert who constantly smiling and so, but for introverts is unnatural and painful.

Carnegie imposed readers the same idea of what should seek man and his ideas eventually caused complexes, psychological problems and feelings of guilt.

racial theory

Key points: the division of humanity into several unequal races

Single race theory does not exist: in different papers released from 4 to 7 major races and dozens of small physical types. Rasologiya knowingly appeared in the era of slavery.

A system in which some people dominate in all spheres of public life, while others limp obey them, requires a scientific justification.

In the middle of the XIX century Frenchman Joseph Gobineau announced Aryan master race destined to rule over the rest. Subsequently racial theory provided a scientific basis for Nazi policies

"Racial hygiene" aimed at discrimination and the destruction of the "inferior" people in the first place - the Jews and Gypsies. The ideas expressed by Gobineau, were developed in the pseudoscientific racial theories

Gunther, who is credited with each anthropological type certain mental abilities and traits. It became the basis of Nazi racial policy, catastrophic

the consequences of which it is not necessary to enumerate.

Modern science denies the division of people into races: the majority of Western scholars believe that the external differences that occur within our species, are important enough to be divided into

additional categories and have nothing to do with mental abilities. After the Second World War, all racial theories were considered insolvent.


Key points: the selection of a person
with the aim of removing valuable qualities

The idea of breeding in relation to a person nominated by Francis Galton, cousin of Charles Darwin. The purpose of eugenics, which became popular in the early decades of the XX century, was to improve the gene pool.

Supporters of "positive eugenics" argue that it may contribute to the reproduction of people with qualities that valuable to society. But what qualities are valuable? Many people,

possess high intelligence and creativity, suffer congenital somatic defects and, therefore, in the process of selection may be left behind. By the same mechanisms inheritance

characteristics such as predisposition to alcoholism or, conversely, good health and a high IQ, equally poorly understood: many of these signs appear only under the influence of the environment in

which brought up and living people.

Eugenics was discredited as a science in the 1930s, when its provisions justify racial policy of Nazi Germany. In the Third Reich to actively develop "negative eugenics": first

Nazis just wanted to stop the reproduction of people with hereditary defects and those who were considered racially inferior. Eugenic programs of forced sterilization of people

have committed serious crimes or "mentally retarded", existed in Sweden, Finland, USA, Denmark, Estonia, Norway and Switzerland, in some countries they operated until the 1970s.

At the end of the XX century, when they were successfully conducted experiments on cloning higher mammals, and geneticists have the opportunity to make changes in the DNA, the question of ethics to improve the gene pool

man again became urgent.

Now the fight against hereditary diseases is conducted in the framework of genetics.



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