Mysteries of mold - VIDEO PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 01 December 2014 16:44

"It appeared on Earth 200 million years ago. Since then she kills ... and save us from death. It is called the "bread of the devil" and "spit of God." It is fantastically beautiful, but she is disgusted. It is omnipresent and ineradicable. She accompanies man from birth to death. Perhaps she is the guardian of life on Earth, but can become a plague of the XXI century. And we do not assume any ancient secrets and hidden forces keeps the damned and blessed mold "- so prophesied overs actor Sergei BezrUKov in the sensational scientific and popular film" mold ", with great fanfare at first channel in February 2009.

But we are not talking about the merits and demerits of this movie, pretty scare a significant part of the Russian TV audience, and actually on the mold of the mysteries surrounding this natural wonder.

We all - mushrooms ?!

Carl Linnaeus placed the mushrooms in the category of "chaos"

The people also called mildew fungus. And it is really microscopic fungi.

And it should be noted that the fungi in general - one of the most mysterious and little, in comparison with the plants and animals studied, the inhabitants of the earth.

In the 30 years of XVIII century Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus, creating a single system of classification of flora and fauna, mushrooms placed in the category of "chaos" (in Greek - "primeval darkness, from which originated the world").

And indeed, they were the first inhabitants of our planet. And even the first plants contained in the stems of the mushroom mycelium.

Moreover, there is a version that it became the prototype of the threads of mycelium of blood vessels and nerve endings. That is, to some degree we all have a lot in common with mushrooms.

And because Sergei Kurehin, rock musician, composer and a very remarkable person, such as in the early 1990s, leading to a leading intellectual chatter of the famous "Fifth Wheel" Sergey Sholokhov and serious mien proving that Lenin - a fungus, was closer to the truth than he probably imagined ...

distress signals

When anti-mold PPE

Mold freely and without registration lives in a variety of apartments. Her dark spots are more common in warm and humid places: in the kitchen, bathroom, toilet. The appearance of mold - an alarm to people: it means that the house is not all right. It is no coincidence in the ancient books such as the Koran says that if your house is struck by black mold, you must burn it with all its contents, and leave this place.

As a young writer living in a communal apartment on the Petrograd side. Mould was in this apartment a real disaster: the walls and ceiling in the kitchen and bathroom were completely covered her plantations. And after fighting with her, spare no effort. Burn the house following the example of the ancient course, we could not, but almost every year have to do the repair yourself, scraping the surface to bricks, re-plastering and obkleivaya wallpapered walls, ceilings blanching. Nothing worked: again and again won the mold living space. But what is interesting: in addition to the common areas it grew only in the rooms occupied by pretty nasty family constantly arranges public squabbles and kept in suspense all the tenants. And in the room where she lived intelligent, kind, devout old lady, mold would not start. It was not in our room, which was dominated by love and understanding. After some time malware family left our apartment, entered in their place decent people - and once in a communal climate change, even to breathe easier. Once again, we have made repair the world - and the mold was gone.

black Death

Aspergillus (under a microscope) - molds, who grew up on a tomato - not without a certain aesthetic

The most common in our everyday life fungi genus Aspergillus. And some species are very dangerous to humans. They can be agents of diseases such as laryngitis, allergies, pneumonia, tracheitis, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, stomatitis, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, thrush, eczema, diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Fungus causes headaches, vomiting, nausea, dizziness, fatigue ... She quietly but steadily destroys human health, the body of which penetrated her arguments. And it is impossible to calculate how many millions of lives claimed these unattractive and so harmless at first glance fungi!

... It happened in 1923 in the Egyptian Valley of the Kings, where the archaeologist Howard Carter excavated. The study was funded eccentric rich Lord George Edward of Carnarvon. At the critical moment when the sponsor was ready to cut off funding, Carter managed to still dug in along and across the valley to find intact burial. This was the famous tomb of King Tutankhamun. Caused by telegram Carter Lord Carnarvon, who came to Egypt with his daughter Evelyn, came to the tomb of the first one. But he soon fell ill from severe pneumonia and died. Someone saw this as "finger of fate": allegedly acted curse of Tutankhamun revealed to the offender of his rest. But in fact, the Lord destroyed the mold: he lived in the tomb of the most dangerous of its species - black fungus Aspergillus niger.

Death contributed to the fact that the immune system has been weakened Carnarvon because he, fond of motorsport, once had an accident and broke several ribs and damaged lung. And that lung damage was attacked fungal spores.

Most vulnerable to mold people whose immune system is weakened heavy operation prolonged illness. And the so-called bad conscience pangs violate immune balance and body make excellent breeding ground for mold. So do not transgress, good people! And remember, better safe than sorry. Do not feel sorry and discard jam, covered with a film of mold and zamohnatevshy orange on one side (all the same disease struck the whole fruit).

Wonder Drug

Alexander Fleming discovered that colonies of staphylococci destroyed molds

However, mold not only destroys but also heals. During the First World, and all previous wars has plagued hospitals was staph germ, even minor wounds turns into deadly. From gas gangrene died more soldiers than directly from the arms of the enemy. Even more were disabled due to amputation. For many years, scientists around the world searched in vain for a means to combat this invisible enemy, and finally the British bacteriologist Alexander Fleming in 1928 accidentally discovered that colonies of staphylococci destroyed by mold fungi Penicillium notatum.

But only at the beginning of the Second World War the British microbiologists Ernst Chain and Howard Florey, who emigrated to the United States, managed to get penicillin and establish its industrial production. This drug has revolutionized the field of surgery. For example, in 1943, each of the thoUSAnds of wounded Germans from gas gangrene killed 150 people, and the British and the Americans, who were treated with penicillin, deaths from this diagnosis almost was not. "To win in the Second World penicillin did more than 25 divisions!" - So it was said in 1945, when giving Fleming, Florey Cheney and the Nobel prize in biology and medicine.

When the Soviet Union became aware of the developments leading British Ministry of Health has asked the allies mold sample obtained Fleming. In response - silence. Then the professor-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine Zinaida Vissarionovna Yermolyeva addressed personally to Stalin to allow it to begin work on the creation of the Soviet penicillin. And she managed on the basis of the strain of mold fungus Penicillium crustosum get drug krustozin. When arrived in Moscow Professor Flory and comparative trials of the American and Soviet agents, it turned out that our effective. But when asked Flory research sample krustozina, he did not refuse, but just ... state security officers at the last minute replaced the Soviet passed the drug to the one that brought the Americans themselves. Such is the revenge of the Allies for their zhlobstvo early in the war. Returning home, Flory was very disappointed.

Yes, penicillin has shown exceptional effectiveness in treating the wounded during World War II. But it soon became clear that staph, and behind him and other bacteria began to mutate, adapting to this antibiotic. After antibiotics were commercially available, their unjustified and excessive use has provoked the emergence of a new, more powerful generation of germs. For their suppression had to invent new antibiotics, to which was given a symmetrical response from germs. And the arms race threatens to become infinite.

Master of the World

Mould surprisingly tenacious. A huge amount of it found on the site of the explosion of the Chernobyl reactor. Radiation has beneficial effects on growth. Mold found in the ice of Antarctica. When an experiment capsule with spores of fungi Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium was attached to the skin of the space station, it was found that the mold has not only survived, being a half years in space, but became even stronger, more stable and more aggressive. And that means that if our planet will turn into a lifeless desert in a nuclear war or other disaster, the only sovereign and its owner will mold.



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