Top 10 strange objects in the solar system - VIDEO PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 08 April 2015 09:00

To date, with the help of spacecraft "Kepler" astronomers were able to locate and confirm the existence of planets 4896. A recently opened a gas giant with an enormous system of 160 rings, so it may seem that we have already know something about what is happening in space.
Nevertheless, the Universe is not tired presents us with surprises. And suddenly it turns out that we do not fully understand even with what is happening in our own solar system.

1. Orc and van't

All we know about Pluto. Particularly attention to him was in 2006, when he was deprived of the status of a full-fledged planet.

But have you heard ever about the object, which is sometimes called the "anti-Pluto?"

Object 90482 Orc - it is an object of the Kuiper Belt, which has almost the same orbital period as Pluto, almost the same angle of inclination of the axis and is almost the same distance from the Sun.

Pluto and Orcus is 2: 3 orbital resonance with Neptune, though Orc little differently oriented in space. Pluto's orbit and Orca are almost identical, and moreover, Orca and Pluto have satellites, which are quite large in comparison with these planets.

Pluto, Charon is half Pluto and satellite Orc Vant, according to various estimates, a third of the size of the Orca.

The name "Orc" was chosen because it is the equivalent of the Roman Etruscan word "Pluto". Orc crystal surface covered by ice from water and possibly from ammonia, which indicates that in the past was Orca cryovolcanism and geological activity. If the presence of ammonia in the Orca will be officially confirmed, the Orc will help professionals understand the mechanism of formation of other trans-Neptunian objects.

2. (90) Antiope

The number 90 in the title of this object suggests that the asteroid Antiope was established ninety in a row, though this fact is still considered controversial.

The fact that the orbit of the object is within the asteroid field between Mars and Jupiter, and, most interestingly, Antiope - this is the first double asteroid that was able to open a scientist.

Since the discovery of a single asteroid Antiope thought, but in 2000, with a 10-meter telescope, "Keck-2", located at the observatory in Hawaii, a group of astronomers determined that the asteroid is actually made up of a pair of objects. The size of each of them about 86 kilometers, and the distance that separates them, is only 171 km.

In fact, with the same pair of objects orbiting in astronomy is not uncommon, but the difference in weight between the components of Antiope is so small that the best way to imagine what she looks like, is to imagine a pair of spinning balls for bowling related piece of string.

3. Saturn's hexagon

Everyone knows about the rings of Saturn, but have you heard anything about the shape of his clouds? In the early 80s the unit "Voyager" made a surprising and unprecedented discovery, which was confirmed later, after arriving at Saturn vehicle "Cassini".

The entire north pole of Saturn's giant storm covers in the form of a hexagon, each side is larger than the diameter of the Earth. This storm is raging there for more than 30 years.

Incredibly, the hexagon does not move with the rest of the clouds on the planet, and its amazing geometric accuracy gives much food for all kinds of pseudoscientific theories (fortunately, most of them can hardly be called serious).

Although fully explain this phenomenon is still not possible, scientists try to explain what is happening on Saturn using fluid dynamics.

Laboratory experiments have shown that the liquid in the center of which rotates faster periphery appear so-called "verge". If the rotation speed is very high, in a liquid form polygons. Wind speed in the "hexagon" on Saturn reaches 322 kilometers per hour. Perhaps this speed and creates so clearly geometric shape.

4. Haumea

Before object 136108 Haumea got its official name, he was known as "Santa" because it opened December 24, 2004.

This is an unofficial name, in fact, quite appropriate since Haumea - this is a very "gifted" and a unique dwarf planet. Specialists was very difficult to measure Haumea due to its incredibly rapid rotation. It rotates faster than any known to science solar system bodies.

This in itself creates a rotation not too many problems, but because it was formed Haumea's not like the other planets.

It consists of rock and ice, gravity there is very low, but because of the monstrous centrifugal force surface of the planet turned into what is called "oblique ellipsoid."

This means that the distance between the poles of the planet is 996 kilometers, and the long axis of the ellipsoid is 1960 kilometers.

By the way, these properties associated with rapid rotation, has not only the planet. Similar properties have and its satellites - Hi'iaka and Namaka, whose mass is only 6% of the mass of our Moon.

5. Pan and Atlas

The two Moons of Saturn have much in common, besides they are located closest to Saturn.

And especially these satellites are doing what they seem to be copied itself the rings of Saturn, and as a result began to resemble the shape of a UFO movies 50s.

Ban, who is also known as the "shepherd Moon," was named after the ancient Greek god of shepherds, and Atlas was named after the titan who held the sky on his shoulders.

In this pair is more Moons Atlas flat, the distance between the poles of a total of 19 kilometers. But the "waist" in his wide - 46 kilometers. Length of the equator of the Moon can not be explained by the same processes that occur on Haumea, as their speed is not that mad.

As a result of extensive computer modeling in the University of Paris found the answer: the thing akkreatsionnyh disks: the equator of the Moon gradually increased and leveled due to the fact that it adheres to the surrounding debris. During the formation of Saturn's Moons were formed around them and small akkreatsionnye discs, consisting of dust and debris, abundantly present in the rings of Saturn. The gradual growth of these drives and led to form Moons that we are seeing now.

6. 2008 KV42

Still, why so many astronomical objects has the annoying name?

Fortunately, this comet is called "fight". It is so named in honor of Dracula, who had the ability to walk on walls. But as walking on the walls due to the comet? Fights - this is the first trans-Neptunian objects, which, as it turned out, revolves around the Sun in a retrograde orbit, ie ago. It is slow, orbital period is 306 years old (although still not clear where is the connection with walks on the walls).

So far in the solar system there are several objects with retrograde orbits. One of these objects is Halley's comet, whose orbital trajectory passes quite close to the Sun. Draco never approaches the Sun at a distance greater than 20 distances from the Sun to the Earth, which is approximately equivalent to the orbit of Uranus.

This feature of the comet could be a link between Halley's comet and other objects from the Oort cloud, which, presumably, is the source of comets in our solar system, and this link may help scientists explain the specifics of the formation of these comets, which currently remains a mystery for science.

There are many versions, trying to explain why the orbit of the fight is different from all the others. The most interesting theory is that this comet has not been formed along with the rest of the solar system, because if it were so, it would have orbited in the same direction as that of all other objects. It is possible that the comet just got into our system as a trap, thus giving us the opportunity to receive an unprecedented amount of information about space.

7. Triton

You've probably heard at least once this title. Triton weight of approximately 99.5% of the total weight of all the known satellites Neptune. Apparatus "Voyager" flying by Triton in 1989, showed that Triton's very difficult geological history, evidence of which is cryovolcanism. On the satellite still have active volcanoes, but they do not emit lava and ash, as on Earth, water and ammonia.

Triton slightly smaller than our Moon, and it is the only Moon in the solar system, which moves in the opposite direction to the rotation of Neptune. And as Triton - one of the largest satellites of the solar system (he even larger than Pluto), he has enough gravity to maintain its own atmospheric layer. But the atmospheric pressure on Triton 50 000 times lower than the earth, so that you could hardly deal with it kiting.

Finally Triton - is one of the objects with a very high reflectivity, it is able to reflect from 60 to 95% of the light incident on its surface. For comparison, our Moon reflects only 11% of the incident light on it.

8. The additional ring of Saturn

Saturn in this article referred to more than once. This planet is known for its unusual ring consisting of ice and dust. But recently, in 2009, experts found out that Saturn has one more, additional and incredibly huge ring. From the main rings it has been rejected by 27 degrees, the distance from Saturn to the ring is approximately 128 radii of the planet. Ring unloaded so that it can be seen only in the infrared spectrum. That it may be the reason that one of Saturn's Moons, Iapetus, referred to as "two-faced": one hemisphere of his black as soot, the second - white as snow.

In the same ring passes the orbit of another Moon of Saturn - Phoebe. Maybe just because of that satellite and ring emerged. Dust ejected Phoebe, settles on Iapetus, whose orbit intersects the ring. Whenever Japet passes through the ring, the particles contained in the ring, it collects on the equator. Perhaps it is because of this process Iapetus after hundreds of thoUSAnds of years and has acquired a striking appearance.

9. "Siamese Moon"

Janus and Epimetheus satellites are also known as "Siamese Moon" because they share the same orbit, and the distance between them is only 50 kilometers. It is even smaller than the radius of satellites themselves.

Because of this, they have to dance to their gravitational tango, which literally makes them change places every four years.

Initially, scientists could not understand why the data they receive from the Moon, which they called Janus, do not meet their expectations. It was only in 1978, 12 years after the discovery of a common orbit "Siamese Moons", experts have realized that what they call Janus - is actually two different Moon. This assumption was confirmed during the flight apparatus "Voyager" in 1980. Interestingly, in the area of ​​satellite orbits observed a faint ring of dust. This suggests that these two Moons were once a Moon, which for some reason was split to form a small amount of debris and dust.

10. Cruthin

Acquainted with the strangest things in the solar system, let's look at the earth and discuss one very controversial issue of the second satellite of our planet.

Astronomers look for the second satellite of the Earth since 1846. Frederic Petit was the first to assert that he had found a second Moon. He suggested that the period of its revolution around the Earth at least three hours, and that it is taking place just 11 kilometers above the surface of our planet. Since then, many astronomers claimed to have found a second Moon, but could not prove it.

Cruthin 3753 - an asteroid, which makes a complete revolution around the Sun for 364 days and is in a prime orbital resonance with the Earth. This means that every year for a short time 5-kilometer asteroid Cruthin becomes part of the Earth system. Each November, he comes to earth as close as possible. Technically consider this asteroid second satellite of the Earth is impossible, as, approaching as close as he then goes for a long time from our planet. But still nice to think that every year, at one and the same time to visit us comes an old friend.



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