Human head transplant will be made in 2017 - VIDEO PDF Print E-mail
Sunday, 01 March 2015 18:00

In the next two years the Italian neurosurgeon plans to hold the world's first transplant of a human head. Sergio Kanavero doctor says that it will be possible when will be able to connect the spinal cord with nerve endings to the immune system is not annexed the head and the body began to perceive all parts of the body as a whole.

According to New Scientist, preparation for surgery will begin later this year. The operation itself, according Kanavero take place no earlier than 2017.

This way you can potentially save the lives of people suffering from degeneration of the muscles and nervous system. The surgeon believes that the level of our technological development allows for such an operation.

The technology that allows transplanted human head Kanavero outlined in the online journal Surgical Neurology International. Organ donor and the patient's head will be cooled to body cells could survive for some time without oxygen. Tissue around the neck cut up with a scalpel, blood vessels are connected by tubes, and the ends of the spinal cord with special glue stick together. Then the patient will be put into a coma for about four weeks to give your body to get stronger. To strengthen ties between the spinal cord nerves are stimulated by implanted electrodes.

According to the scientist, waking up, the patient will be able to move, feel the muscles of the face and even speak the same voice. Within a year he learns to walk.

It is worth mentioning that the first successful transplantation of the head was performed on monkeys in 1970. As the surgeons did not try to glue the parts of the spinal cord, the animal could not walk, but was breathing, though, with the help of a third party. Nine days after the operation the immune system has stolen someone else's head and the monkey died.

Chairman of the American Academy of Neurology and Orthopedics Surgeons (AANOS) believes that drugs specifically designed to help protect against the rejection of donor organs.

Several people have already expressed their desire to get a new body. However, one of the main problems can be to find a country that will permit to conduct such transplants.

Real stumbling block is the ethical side of the issue. Whether it is necessary to carry out such an operation? It is obvious that many people oppose it - said Kanavero.

There are those who doubt the success of the project. Harry Goldsmith, Professor of Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, University of California at Davis, does not believe in the implementation of the plan. According to him, the operation of the human head transplant would be fraught with many problems. Scientists say that it is impossible to preserve the health of the body being in a coma for four weeks.

If society does not want it, then I will not do it. Before "fly to the Moon", you need to make sure that people follow you - said Kanavero.

Not everyone knows that in the '60s godah twentieth century in the United States and the Soviet Union were conducted experiments that shocked the world. Surgeons have successfully transplant surgery goals primates, to realize wildest imagination Soviet writer Alexander Belyaev. But is it possible to save the human brain alive after the body has died?

In the 50s mankind split the atom and going to conquer space. "Cold War" was in full swing. Two systems were competing on all fronts, including in the field of medical science. In those years, on Stalin's orders in the outskirts of Moscow was established surgical secret laboratory. There conduct unique experiments on animals. The internal organs were removed from the bodies and keep them alive through a variety of equipment. Removed from the body of the dog heart pumped blood, and after 10 minutes after death was recorded, blood is pumped back into the vessels. Gradually recovered his breath. Dog alive and breathing a couple of hours on their own.

Directed these unique operations Vladimir Demikhov. During World War II he operated a soldier on the battlefield. In those years, a talented doctor got the experience necessary for its unique experiments. He believed then that can be transplanted heart and lungs.

In 1951 Demihov first transplanted lungs, and then the heart of one of the dog in the chest the other, thereby creating a basis for national transplantation. Magician from Moscow was preparing to human heart transplant for 16 years before this operation was actually carried out.

In February 1954, he made an experiment that shocked the world. The scientist and his team have two dogs - an adult and puppy. The operation lasted all night. Demihov morning to demonstrate their achievements. Footage video footage captured the two-headed monster. The head and the front part of the body puppy was sewn to the neck of a large dog. Doctors put together their muscles, blood vessels, nerves and trachea. Biological construction, if you can call the creation of Professor Demikhova lived a few more days. Ate the head and even tried to bark!

About joined dogs found all over the world. Unfortunately, much of the public, especially Western, took it as a freak show. Only doctors, and even then not all, saw in the papers Demikhova important scientific achievement.

Particularly interested in the work of the Soviet biologist American surgeon Robert White. Then the US was in the grip of paranoia "cold war".

Americans suspected that the Soviet biologists have reached some unique results and decided to overtake the Soviets. Was created by the US transplant program head. Her head was a neurosurgeon Robert White of Cleveland. He, like Demihov, was a veteran of World War II, treated the wounded airmen at the US military base in the Pacific Islands. Ingenious and ambitious neurosurgeon in 1964 led a specialized laboratory at the district hospital in Cleveland (Ohio). Over time, the laboratory became the world's leading center for the study of the brain. Tam White operated on patients with brain injuries and diseases of the brain. The doctor determined to compete with the Creator and uncover the secrets of the brain.

The first step on the way transplantation became realized the task of maintaining the living brain extracted from the skull. For their experiments, the researchers used animals. At the time, this did not arise difficulties, as yet non-existent companies to protect the rights of animals. In 1962 White brain monkeys demonstrated removed from the body, which is kept alive for a few hours.

In 1964, an American neurosurgeon had brain transplant. He took one dog brain and transplanted it into the neck of another. The brain is the second dog was left untouched. White and his team joined the blood vessels of the transplanted marrow to the blood vessels of the neck. Brain, "living" in the neck, remained under observation. Numerous devices controlled circulation and metabolism. Brain function properly in the body of another dog for six days. It was an incredible success!

However, a new problem arises. EEG showed that the brain lives. But if he performs his functions?

Meanwhile, in the USSR, the powers that be considered work Demikhova unscientific. Professor engaged in the development of new techniques of heart surgery, but experiments on the dog's head transplants were discontinued. Some colleagues have called Demidov charlatan, he was deprived of all privileges.

In 1966, White went to the USSR. Then Russian sympathizer told him that a dog's head separated from his body long enough to show signs of life - reacted to light and sound. That is retained consciousness. Using the experience Demikhova, White planned to transplant monkey head.

Three years was being prepared for surgery. March 14, 1970 White team prepared for a unique experiment. The operation took two monkeys - and Mary Lou Lou. Bandaging every blood vessel surgeons separated from the trunk monkey head Mary, now the head is supplied with blood through a network of special tubes. Instruments showed that the brain Mary alive. The last phase of the operation is to combine the head with decapitated body of Mary Lou Lou. Surgeons sewed arteries and veins very quickly to the brain is not dead. Then they sewed the muscles and nerves.

The professor and his assistant waiting for a miracle, and it happened! When finished anesthesia, monkey opened her eyes, she saw and heard, a few days even fed her with a spoon. White announced that the next step will be to transplant a human head!

But, oddly enough, the fate of the White reached Demikhova. Raaboty came under fire from critics. Said that Dr. Cleveland crazy Frankenstein, who wants to settle the land of monsters. Especially rampage clerics: "Is it possible to intervene in the plan of the Creator? Only God has the right to create living beings! "Many experiments Schillo White immoral. In the address of the surgeon heard the threat, a few years White and his family guarded by police. As a result of the negative attitude of the public state funding laboratory White stopped.

However, the work of the surgeon raised a number of difficult philosophical questions. Where is the soul? Will the man with his head on his personality transplant?

In recent years, the United States, a number of publications in which it was reported that White at your own risk spent transplant of a human head using a car accident victims. Supposedly new "combined" being manifested any superhuman abilities. When the professor who is retired, asked about it, he just smiles.



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