Top 10 amazing abilities resulting from genetic mutations - VIDEO PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 02 January 2015 13:46

Compared to many other species, all people are incredibly similar genomes. Even small differences in our genes give us certain characteristics that make us unique. These differences may occur in the usual way: for example, hair color, height or shape of the face, but sometimes a single homo sapiens or a group of people appears trait or factor that clearly distinguishes them from the rest of humanity.

1. The level of cholesterol does not increase
We all know that it limit consumption of fried and fatty foods, but some people can safely eat it without any risk to health. Regardless of the fact that they consume "bad cholesterol" have not been observed. These people were born with a genetic mutation. They just do not "working copies" of a gene called PCSK9. It is believed that to be born with this mutation is bad, but this seems to have some positive side effects. Now pharmaceutical companies are working feverishly working to create a pill that would block PCSK9 other people.

2. Resistance to HIV

The human race can destroy anything: asteroid, nuclear explosion, extreme climate change, super-virulent viruses. By the way, some people really are resistant to certain diseases - HIV, for example. They have a particular genetic mutation that disables copies protein CCR5. HIV uses this protein as a "door" in the cellular world of man. In other words, if a person has no CCR5, HIV infection he has nothing to fear.

3. Resistance to malaria

People are resistant to malaria, are carriers of another deadly disease: sickle cell anemia. Of course, hardly anyone wants to protect themselves from malaria to die prematurely from the deformation of blood cells, but to understand how it works, mankind should learn the basics of both diseases. Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes, and the disease is attacking red blood cells, is very dangerous (mortality - about 660 thoUSAnd people per year). Sickle cell anemia causes changes in the shape and composition of red blood cells, making them difficult to move in the bloodstream. However, due to mutations in the blood cells, these cells are simply "wrong perceive" the malaria parasite and do not let him inside.

4. Resistance to cold
Eskimos and other peoples who live in extremely cold conditions, long adapted to them. Do these people have learned to simply survive or they are biologically arranged differently? In fact, they are just different physiological responses to low temperature. People generations living in cold climates, have higher levels of basal metabolic rate (above 50%). Furthermore, they have less of the sweat glands on the body and on the greater face. The human body is much better adapted to heat than to cold, because people in the North for a long time just to adapt and adapt his body to his native cold conditions.

5. Adaptability to height

Most climbers who climbed Everest, could not have done it without the people's representatives Sherpa. Sherpas are always ahead of adventurers to establish for them the ropes and ladders. Tibetans and Nepalese better tolerate height - and that's a fact, they are almost perfectly survive in anoxic conditions, while ordinary people in such circumstances are struggling to survive. Tibetans live at an altitude of more than 4 thoUSAnd meters and are accustomed to breathe air that contains 40% less oxygen. Their bodies have adapted to this environment with low oxygen content, and their lungs become more powerful. The researchers found that many of these features are not just phenotypes, but the genetic adaptation.

6. Immunity to disease of the brain

Papua New Guinea in the middle of the 20th century experienced an epidemic of kuru, fatal brain disease. Like all prion diseases kuru destroys the brain, resulting in reduced memory and intelligence, personality changes and convulsions. In the case of kuru people usually die within a year, and the disease itself is most commonly transmitted by eating the flesh of an infected person or animal. Everyone who survived kuru, was found modified gene G127V, which develops immunity to diseases of the brain. This fact is one of the most powerful examples of natural selection in humans.

7. Gold Blood

It is believed that the blood (O) i group is universal, but it is not. In fact, the entire system more complicated. We all know about the four blood groups (A, AB, B and O) and two Rh factor, although there are currently 35 known blood group systems with a million variations on each system. Blood that misses the ABO system, is considered rare, and find a donor is virtually impossible. Nevertheless, there is a rare blood called "Rh-zero." It contains no antigen in rhesus system. They are people without rhesus blood. Their blood is called the "golden". They can be a lifesaver for many, but for them incredibly difficult to find donors.

8. Perfect vision under water

The human eye is not adapted to be seen in the water. When we try to open your eyes under water, everything looks blurry. This is because water has a similar density to the liquid in the eyes, which limits the amount of transmitted light, the perceived eye. However, the Moken tribe people clearly see underwater, even at depths up to 22 m. Moken spend eight months of the year on boats or in houses on stilts. They return to the ground only for essentials. Their life is in the water or near water. Because of this their eyes adapted.

9. superdense bones

With age, there is a problem of osteoporosis, ie the loss of bone mass and density. This leads to the inevitable fractures, deformation and fracture. Nevertheless, there exists a group of people with a unique gene which could be the key to the treatment of osteoporosis. The gene is found in a South African of Dutch origin (Afrikaner). This mutation in the gene SOST, which controls protein (sklerostin) regulating bone growth. Now researchers are studying the DNA of Afrikaners in the hope of finding ways to reverse osteoporosis and other age-related skeletal deformation.

10. Less need for sleep
The fact is that there are people who can sleep less than six hours a day. And it does not stop them! They just have a rare genetic mutation of the gene DEC2, physiologically because they need less time to sleep. An average human chronic sleep deprivation can lead to health problems. People with DEC2 mutation no such problems. This genetic anomaly is extremely rare and occurs in only 1% of people.



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