New discoveries of physics in 2014 - VIDEO PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 29 December 2014 13:26

The laws of physics can not be violated. But they can be explored. And best of all amenable to the study of nature, when the researchers tested the strength of the established limits. Thus, it is known that nothing in the Universe can be cold absolute zero temperature or to move faster than light in a vacuum. However, physicists constantly put experiments, which resulted in our understanding of the limit values are changing.
The final material of the major discoveries of physics in 2014, we have collected news on the set or registered scientists records. And they are truly astonishing.

The longest echo in man-made objects

Let's start with the most "entertaining" record of the year. Prior to the 2014 record for the longest echo built by man in space is 15 seconds. That's how much we hear echoes in the Mausoleum of Hamilton in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. But in January 2014, this record was broken - the first time in 44 years.

Tunnels, where the echo lasts a record 112 seconds

Professor Trevor Cox (Trevor Cox), a specialist in acoustic engineering, found the room where the echo lasts as much as 112 seconds. They were underground tunnels with abandoned fuel depot near Invergordon.

This extraordinary underground warehouse was built before the Second World War - in 1938. The length of some corridors exceeds the length of two football fields, and the ceiling height is 13.5 meters.

Record dense diamond

In July 2014 physicists set a record density by squeezing a small diamond to such an extent that he was denser than lead. To this end, a team of scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California resorted to heavy-duty laser systems.

The most accurate clock in the world strontium

In the experiment used the technology of so-called dynamic compression oblique: diamond fired from all directions of the laser beams 176, whereby pressure waves are compressed to a density of stone, four times the normal rate. Pressure that was exerted on the mineral to 50 million times the pressure at the Earth's surface and was 5 terapascals.

All of these efforts have been made with a single purpose - to understand how matter behaves in the cores of giant planets. Unlike the Earth, which is at the core of the pressure reaches 361 GPa, in the center of Saturn (the terms of which were simulated in the experiment), this figure is much higher. Also, the findings will help in the study of extrasolar planets known to man, most of which are just gas giants.

The most accurate and stable clock

None of the clock in the world can boast such precision as new strontium atomic by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. This mechanism uses the vibrations of the atoms in an optical lattice strontium as a pendulum.

This year's physics as accurately determine the mass of the electron

The particles are cooled to temperatures close to absolute zero, thereby avoiding interference from any particles from the outside. Atoms oscillate between two energy states due to the effect of red laser. System Tests showed that the atoms undergo 430000000000000 movements per second.

An important addition: a new watch also set a record of stability. Stability is determined by how short term requires the device to achieve its maximum performance. Unlike previous record holders, who needed a minute, and sometimes daily, strontium atomic clock to stabilize just a couple of seconds.

Accurate measures of mass of the electron

In February, the outgoing year of physics at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Max Planck Society in Heidelberg, Germany, have decided to measure the mass of an electron as accurately as possible. For his experiment as weights scientists used a Penning trap.

This device uses a uniform static magnetic field and the uniform electric field in order to catch and hold the charged particle. Guinea electron was elected one that turned around the nucleus of an atom of carbon. Atom fluctuated within a Penning trap with a stable frequency. Then physicists used the microwave to change the rate of the electron spin, and measure the difference between the oscillations of the spin and the atom.

Accurate measure of the magnetic moment of the proton learned German physicists

At the final stage of the experiment, scientists conducted calculations on the equations of quantum electrodynamics, and calculated the difference between the mass of a proton (nucleus of an atom) and an electron. And since the mass of the atom was initially known, the desired output rate was not difficult.

As a result, it was found that the electron has 0.000548579909067 atomic mass units. Findings are consistent with previous measurements, but are 13 times more accurate than most accurate mass index negatively charged particles over the years.

A record number of the magnetic moment of the proton

A few months after became known the exact mass of the electron, physicists interested in the magnetic moment of the proton. In June 2014 published the results of a record accurate measurements of this quantity.

The experiment, as well as in the case of determining the mass of the electron, conducted by scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Max Planck Society, and, again, was based on the allocation of particles in a Penning trap. This device will allow physicists to track how the proton changes its direction of spin, depending on the influence of the external magnetic field.

Golden nanomotorchiki rotated at 150 thoUSAnd revolutions per minute

Pounding particle alternately in one direction and then the other Penning trap and comparing performance, the researchers calculated the frequency at which the magnetic field induces a change in the direction of the spin. So was registered record the exact value of the magnetic moment of the particle.

The resulting figure was 760 times more accurate than the previous measurement. According to the authors, these data will help unravel the mystery of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe, there is a predominance of matter and antimatter.

The "gold" record speed of rotation

In July 2014 physicists forced to rotate at a record pace gold Nanomotors. In the role of the little motor microscopic rods made of pure gold. They were placed in water, mixed with polystyrene nanoparticles and placed between two plates of glass and silicon. In the motion actuator rod sound waves generated by the device, similar to a speaker.

Record the distance that instantly transfers information from light to matter

Rotating rods created microvortices who seized polystyrene particles. By measuring the speed of movement of the balls, the scientists were able to determine the rotational speed of the rods. It turned out that it is equal to 150 thoUSAnds rpm.

This achievement can be used to create nanorobots to deliver drugs to specific targets, as well as adapted to the needs of industry: such a high rotation speed makes it easy to mix materials.

Record distance communication of the future

Physicists at the University of Geneva provided information from light to matter on record distance in September 2014. Crystal receiving signals has been removed from an information source as much as 25 kilometers.

In their experiment, the scientists created a pair of photons in a state of quantum entanglement. One particle sent to "travel" through a fiber optic cable, and the other was placed in a crystal receiver of yttrium orthosilicate. The third photon sent ultra-precision laser, and forced to catch up with the first encounter with him.

Physics cooled entire molecule to a record low temperatures

Analysis of the performance of many instruments has shown that information about the quantum state of the third photon that collided with the first, was not destroyed, as was to be expected, but the display on the particles in the crystal-receiver.

Thus, the third photon data were transferred to the crystal particles, without direct interaction with each other. This experiment gives hope that one day people will communicate instantly and safely on the quantum communication channels.

Almost absolute zero

As we mentioned, absolute zero is impossible to cool anything. However, physics all the time trying to reach a record low temperatures as close to absolute zero, because it is at such temperatures show a remarkable quantum phenomena. Thus, in 2014 was registered two ultracold object - copper cube and monofluoride molecule strontium.

The experiment was conducted with a copper cube at the National Institute of Nuclear Physics in Italy. Chetyrёhsotkilogrammovy piece of metal placed in a cryostat - a special cooling chamber. As a result of successive cooling by liquid gas temperature of the object reached 273.144 minus Celsius or minus 459.66 Fahrenheit, and is only 6 millikelvins above absolute zero.

Since copper cube was the coldest macro lens in the Universe known to man and remained so for 15 days.

The coldest objects in the Universe as much as 15 days a copper cube

As for the cooling of individual molecules, there is necessary to use several different methods. Recall that the absolute zero temperature, so that physicists want to achieve - a condition in which it is impossible to no movement at all. Therefore, to cool the molecules they need to slow down as much as possible.

Physics from Yale University came in that way. They used laser systems with controlled radiation wavelength and magneto-optical trapping to cool molecules monofluoride strontium. The material was also chosen by chance - his energy vibrations of molecules is much smaller than that of any other.

As a result of the experiment material particles were cooled to 2.5 thoUSAndths of a degree above absolute zero. It is noteworthy that in this case immediately cooled scientists entire molecule rather than individual atoms, which are then collected in a molecular structure as is done in most experiments.

Record energy accelerator table

Thanks to several records physicists achieved this year, 2014, the second could be one of the last years of the era of giant particle accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider. In the future, each laboratory will be accelerating its installation, and it will fit on almost ordinary desktop.

More in June 2013 physicists from the University of Texas was created the world's first particle accelerator table that takes advantage of the laser and plasma. In November 2014, researchers from the Department of energy, the US National Accelerator Laboratory SLAC and the University of California in Los Angeles, upgraded technology and studied the properties of the plasma, which allows you to overclock the particles at distances of a few centimeters.

Thanks to laser-plasma acceleration will soon replace desktop installation giants such as the LHC

And in December 2014 Physics of the National Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, USA, demonstrated a miniature accelerator facility, which beats all records in levels of received energy. Interestingly, this device was not just the most efficient among its desktop "colleagues", but also among some polnorazmenyh charged particle accelerators.

The experiment consisted in trying to accelerate electrons within the 9-cm tube filled with plasma. Particles driven by a powerful petawatt laser, with which the electrons were able to overclock up to speed ekvivaletnoy energy of 4.25 GeV.

And this, according to the study authors, is not the limit. In the future, physicists plan to accelerate the electrons in the plasma channel to an energy of 10 GeV. It is hoped that they will succeed, because the future where everyone will be portable physics accelerator installation will greatly shorten the life of the most important research.

in total

In the following 2015 scientists will break new records. Who knows, maybe one day the laws of physics have to be rewritten in accordance with the results of new experiments. And then, perhaps, science will open the doors to the new physics.



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