Scientific facts about love - VIDEO PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 10 December 2014 17:12

We think that the ability to love sets us apart from most animals. But from the point of view of science all the romantic feelings only trick selfish and cynical genes whose only desire - endless reproduction.

❤ trick

From the point of view of the evolution of any living thing - it's just a set of genes that copy themselves. Genes can grow into cells grown organisms interact with each other, but eventually will leave a trace in history, only those who manage to keep their copies. To achieve the goal, the genes are on all sorts of tricks. Some are betting on simplicity and efficiency, and in the shortest time produce a maximum of copies. For example, bacteria are divided into two parts, and the hydra budding of new organisms themselves. This is called asexual reproduction. Other genes act smarter. They are not simply replicate themselves, and mixed with other genes and produce progeny from the resulting mixture. This is the essence of sexual reproduction, which gave beings choice: who would have "mixed up" to provide seed for the greatest success? Asexual reproduction is aimed only at the number. For sexual quality is important. The strategy of "choose and stirred" proved to be extremely effective. She helped genes master the entire planet - from the mountains to the sea floor.

Using sexual reproduction, genes built for himself heaped machine like the human body - all in order to continue to replicate itself. But what if we - adult sensible people - are not interested in the intentions of our genes? What if we do not want to breed? Of course, genes and provided it. To deceive a person, they invented love. American anthropologist Helen Fisher shared the love of three biological components: lust, attraction and privyazannost1. As individual aircraft engines operate independently from each other, and in the brain of three components independently manage love our emotions and desires. You can feel affection for one partner to another drive and still excited at the sight of naughty pictures of someone the third.

❤ Lust

Lust, or libido - the desire in whatever became involved in sexual reproduction. With whom, for what, and with what outcome - not so important. What matters is the process, not the result.

Analog of human lust can be considered a reaction of animals to pheromones. For example, they are isolated mouse mature males. Pheromone molecules entering the nose female mice, bind to specific receptors on nerve endings. They transmit a signal, "It's time to multiply!" Directly into the brain, which immediately begins to command: "To prepare for ovulation, hormones pumped into the blood, the male does not lose sight!" Lust - is the main engine of reproduction, and Homo sapiens he works for sex hormones: estrogen and androgen. Being an ancient mechanism, lust is blind, and morality are powerless against her oppression.

❤ Attraction

If all surrounding lust for one person, at the level of drive is selected, for which all meant. Doe will give preference to male victory in battle. The young lady will go on a date with the most charming suitor. From the viewpoint of neurophysiology difference between these events is not.

The main agent responsible for the attraction, which is also called love, considered dopamine. It should be the level of dopamine in the brain to grow, comes euphoria, a person becomes overactive, lose appetite and sleep, worrying over nothing and at the same time begins to think better. The same effect is caused, for example, cocaine and amphetamines, which cause the body to "squeeze" out of himself the whole dopamine. Why do human genes nervous but happy and smart? The answer is simple: the machine to carry genes should overcome any difficulties, but to bring the matter before the sexual reproduction with your chosen partner. And to do so as quickly as possible, until a different wishing to participate in the agitation genes. That is why love so much nervous and sees only one way out of the painfully sweet state: to ladylove. And, of course, to deliver genes where to apply.

❤ Affection

Affection appeared in living beings by evolutionary standards recently. Superstructure over lust arose about 120-150 million years ago, mammals and birds first. This is not surprising: if lust and desire are based on the obvious, immediate and direct observations, feelings, the attachment requires a look into the future, and it is much more difficult.

Why genes have invented such a complex mechanism? If we imagine that the offspring appears immediately after fertilization and immediately begin their life, the affection even harmful: what is the limit reproduction with just one set of genes? But the more difficult it becomes in the evolution of living beings, the more time and energy required their offspring. To make a new bacterium is sufficient twenty minutes and a pinch of sugar. To get the full functionality of the new man, we need nine months of pregnancy, comfort, special diet, painful labor and a couple dozen years care and education. With the increasing complexity of breeding animals became protracted, which need to plan ahead. Change sexual partners as gloves became unprofitable if the relationship ends after fertilization, who will search for food? Nor desire nor lust do not take these complexities into account. Their mission ends when the genes are transferred to the next generation. We needed a way to get the car to choose a long-term breeding, not just an attractive partner. Home "molecule attachment" - the hormone oxytocin. He stands out in large numbers at birth, helping to cope with the pain in the future to forget about it. This hormone promotes the release of milk directly affects the expression of affection for children and encourages parental behavior. Oxytocin enhances the desire to spend time with your partner, keep with it social and physical contact. We can say that oxytocin - a hormone plans for the future.

Love ❤

Systems for lust, attraction and attachment in humans, there is in other mammals. In studies of the role of oxytocin, for example, often use the steppe voles - these rodents are monogamous and are tied to the partner. But this is not to say that voles love means the same as for humans. Need to look for a starting point of what we call love. It is believed that the origin of love in humans is associated with the early evolution of the great apes. Eight million years ago, changing climate of West Africa has forced our ancestors to leave the forest thinning and go into the savannah. In open spaces had to travel long distances, and for about four million years ago Australopithecus rose to their feet, instead of climbing trees.

Straightening up, the female was no longer able to carry a child on the back, and it's difficult to find food. But walking upright to free his hands males, and they began to wear the extracted food over long distances, instead of dinner on the spot. Evolutionary advantage to get the family to the distribution of roles: the female care for children, males bring food. In the new situation ancient oxytocin system proved to be extremely useful. After playing with the settings of brain evolution "connected" to the action of the hormone rapidly developing emotions and consciousness of Australopithecus - improved nutrition and education opportunities pups strongly increased his intellectual abilities. Less than three million years as hormonal and emotional processes, invented genes to maximize copying themselves, overgrown with dense shell culture. Religion sang oxytocin and medieval minstrels - dopamine. But this fact did not have to upset people like to lose control of his life: in the end, who, if not the genes, better knows how to make us nice? So it is necessary to relax and enjoy.

❤ Timeline. Chronicle breeding

~ 3,5-1,2 BILLION YEARS AGO (exact date unknown)
The occurrence of sexual reproduction. Ancient bacteria exchange genes.

The first fossil "men" and "women": red algae Bangiomorpha.

~ 0.5 Gyr ago
Ancient jellyfish reproduce sexually, but male and female individuals do not stand out. Androgyny is popular in invertebrates so far.

Arthropods open pheromones: the explosive spread of "sexual desire" among crustaceans and insects.

Birds master air. The need to teach complex skills chicks flight leads to couples and joint care of posterity.

~ 50 Ma
Males of some species of fish (eg MaslyUKova) protect the eggs with their mothers.

Prairie voles use oxytocin as the "hormone of love", forming a stable, monogamous couples.

Modern people live in the classical families: the male breadwinner and wife-mistress.

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