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TOP 10 discoveries in physics - VIDEO PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 27 June 2014 11:00

At the speed of light time stops
According to Einstein's special relativity, the speed of light remains the same - and is about 300 million meters per second, regardless of the observer. That in itself is incredible, considering that nothing can travel faster than light, but still purely was theoretically. In the special theory of relativity is the interesting part, which is called "time dilation" and which says that the faster you move, the slower time moves for you, unlike the environment. If you go by car an hour, you get old a little less than if just sitting at home on the computer. Additional nanosecond is unlikely to change your life, but still the fact remains.
It turns out that if the speed of light, time freezes in place at all? It's true. But before you try to become immortal, be aware that the speed of light is not possible if you are unlucky enough to be born with light. From a technical point of view, the motion with the speed of light would require an infinite amount of energy.
quantum entanglement
Only that we have come to the conclusion that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. Well ... yes and no. While technically it is true, in theory there is a loophole, which was found in the most unlikely branches of physics - quantum mechanics.
Quantum mechanics, in fact, is the study of physics at the microscopic scale, such as the behavior of subatomic particles. These types of particles are incredibly small, but very important because they form the building blocks of everything in the Universe. Can you imagine them as tiny electrically charged rotating balls. Without the mess.
So, we have two electrons (subatomic particles with a negative charge). Quantum entanglement - is a special process that binds the particles so that they are identical (have the same spin and charge). When this happens, this point electrons are identical. This means that if you change one of them - for example, change the spin - the second to react immediately. Regardless of where it is located. Even if you will not touch it. The effect of this process is awesome - you realize that in theory this information (in this case, the spin direction) can teleport anywhere in the Universe.
Gravity affects light
Let's go back to the light and talk about the general theory of relativity (Einstein also authored). In this theory includes a concept known as the deflection of light - the light path may not always be straightforward.
Strange as it may sound, it has been proven repeatedly. Although there is no light weight, it depends on the way of things in which this mass is - like the Sun. Therefore, if the light from a distant star pass close enough to another star, it will round it. How it affects us? Yes, simply: perhaps those stars that we see are in completely different places. Remember, the next time you're looking at the stars: it can all be just a game of light.
dark matter
Thanks to some theories that we have already discussed, physicists have a fairly accurate way to measure the total mass present in the Universe. Also they have a fairly accurate way to measure the total mass, which we can observe - but that's bad luck, these two numbers do not match.
In fact, the amount of the total weight of the Universe considerably greater than the total mass, we can calculate. Physicists had to find an explanation for this, and the result is a theory, including dark matter - a mysterious substance that does not emit light and takes about 95% of the mass in the Universe. Although the existence of dark matter is not formally proven (because we can not observe it) in favor of dark matter says a mass of evidence, and it must exist in some form or another.
Our Universe is expanding rapidly
Concepts are complicated, and to understand why, we need to return to the Big Bang theory. Before becoming a popular TV show, the Big Bang theory was important explanation for the origin of our Universe. Put simply: our Universe began with the explosion. Wreckage (planets, stars, etc.) spread in all directions, driven by a huge explosion energy. Since fragments are quite heavy, we expected that it should slow down explosive spread over time.
But this did not happen. In fact, the expansion of our Universe is happening faster and faster over time. And it's weird. This means that space is constantly growing. The only possible way to explain it - dark matter and dark energy more precisely, which causes a constant acceleration. What is dark energy? You're better off not knowing.
Any matter - the energy
matter and energy - it's just two sides of the same coin. In fact, you always knew that if I ever saw the formula E = mc2. E - is energy and m - mass. The amount of energy contained in a given amount of mass is determined by multiplying the mass by the square of the speed of light.
Explanation of this phenomenon is very fascinating and due to the fact that the mass of an object increases as we approach the speed of light (even if the time to slow down.) The proof is rather complicated, so you can just take a word. Look at the atomic bombs that convert quite small amounts of matter into powerful bursts of energy.
Wave-particle duality
Some things are not as clear as they seem. At first glance, the particles (eg, electron) and waves (eg, light) seem to be quite different. First - solid chunks of matter, second - beams radiated energy, or something like that. Like apples and oranges. It turns out that things like light and electrons are not confined to one state - they may be particles and waves at the same time, depending on who is looking at them.
Seriously. Sounds funny, but there are concrete evidence that light - it is a wave, and light - a particle. Light - this and that, and more. Simultaneously. Not some intermediary between the two states, namely both. We returned to the field of quantum mechanics, and quantum mechanics in the Universe loves it so, and not otherwise.
All objects fall at the same rate
It may seem that heavy objects fall faster than light - it sounds sensible. Certainly, the bowling ball falls faster than a feather. This is true, but not the fault of gravity - the only reason why it turns out that the Earth's atmosphere provides resistance. Some 400 years ago Galileo first realized that gravity works the same on all objects, regardless of their masses. If you repeated the experiment with a bowling ball and a feather on the Moon (which has no atmosphere), they would fall at the same time.
quantum foam
That's it. At this point you can move the mind.
Do you think that space itself is empty. This assumption is quite reasonable - on it and space, space. But the Universe abhors a vacuum, so in space, in space, in a vacuum constantly born and die particles are called virtual, but in fact they are real, and it is proven. They exist a split second, but it's long enough to break down some of the fundamental laws of physics. Scientists call this phenomenon "quantum foam" because it resembles the awful gas bubbles in carbonated soft drink.
The double-slit experiment
We mentioned that all may be a particle and a wave simultaneously. But here's the catch: if there is an apple in hand, we know exactly how it forms. This apple, not some apple wave. What determines the state of a particle? Answer: we.
Two-slit experiment - it's just an incredibly simple and mysterious experiment. That's what he is. Scientists have placed a screen with two slits against the wall and shoot a beam of light through a slit, so we can see where it will fall on the wall. Since the light - it is a wave, it will create a certain diffraction pattern, and you will see streaks of light scattered across the wall. Although the gap was two.
But the particles should react differently - flying through two slits, they should leave the two strips on the wall directly opposite slots. And if the light - a particle, why did not he demonstrates this behavior? The answer lies in the fact that the light will show this behavior - but only if we want to. As a wave, light flies through both slits simultaneously, but as a particle, it will fly through only one. All we need to turn light into a particle - measuring every particle of light (photon), flies through the gap. Imagine a camera that takes pictures every photon passing through the slit. The same photon can not fly through the other slit without being wave. Interference pattern on the wall is simple: two strips of light. We physically changing event results by simply measuring them, watching them.
This is called "the effect of the observer." And although it is a good way to end this article, it is not even superficially dug in an absolutely incredible things that are physics. There are a bunch of variations of the double-slit experiment, even more crazy and interesting.


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