The official position of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) on the intake of creatine

The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) presents an objective and critical review related to the consumption of creatine by healthy athlete / athlete individuals (and in medicine). Based on the literature currently available, the Company's position is as follows:

1. Creatine monohydrate is the most effective ergogenic and affordable nutritional supplement for athletes used for purposes, increasing tolerance to high-intensity exercise and positive effects on muscle mass during exercise.

2. Creatine monohydrate is not only safe, but, according to numerous studies, has a number of therapeutic benefits for both healthy and sick people, from babies to older people. It has not been found any convincing scientific evidence that the short or long-term use of creatine monohydrate (up to 30 g / day for 5 years) has any harmful effect on human health (a negative effect on current health and / or health Patient).

3. With proper precautions and controls, the intake of creatine monohydrate in children and adolescent athletes is acceptable and can provide a nutritional alternative with a favorable safety profile in order to avoid the use of potentially dangerous anabolic androgenic drugs. Nevertheless, we recommend that creatine be considered only for use in young athletes who:
A) take part in a controlled training process;
B) uses a well-balanced diet, which, among other things, has a positive effect on athletic performance;
C) are knowledgeable about the proper use of creatine, and
D) do not exceed recommended doses.

4. At present, creatine monohydrate is the most widely studied and clinically proven effective form of creatine for use in food additives, in terms of muscle absorption and the ability to increase tolerance to high-intensity exercise.

6. The combination of creatine with carbohydrates, or carbohydrates and proteins, appears to increase muscle uptake of creatine, although the overall performance is not likely to be higher than what is observed when creatine monohydrate alone is used.

7. To quickly increase the concentration of creatine in muscle tissue, it can be used: during the first 5-7 days ~ 0.3 g / kg / day of creatine monohydrate, then on a daily basis continue the use of creatine in the amount of 3-5 g / Day (although some studies show that larger athletes may need further use of creatine at 5-10 g / day, to maintain the optimal creatine concentration in the muscles).

The use of creatine monohydrate, a smooth background (without a loading phase), in a smaller amount (for example, 3-5 g / day), will promote a gradual increase in the creatine concentration within the creatine pools to optimal values ​​during the 3-4-week period [ those. The effect will be the same, but it will simply be distant in the future].

8. Clinical studies of creatine monohydrate intake of 0.3-0.8 g / kg / day (equivalent to 21-56 g / day, for 70 kg of a human) for many years, do not show any clinically significant or serious side effects .

9. Comments from authorities and government policies related to creatine should be based on a thorough evaluation of scientific evidence from well-controlled clinical studies; And not on allegations, disinformation published on the Internet, and / or poorly designed and (in the same way) conducted surveys, because All this, only reinforce the existing myths in the minds of the townsfolk.

Assertions that other different forms of creatine have better bioavailability, in comparison with creatine monohydrate under real conditions or lead to better absorption by the muscles of other forms of creatine, are currently unfounded [53]. Evidence obtained from clinical trials has not demonstrated that various forms of creatine such as creatine citrate [50], creatine serum [58], creatine ethyl ester [59], buffered creatine [60] or creatine nitrate [61], promote better bioavailability (And less degradation) of creatine than creatine monohydrate.
 

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