Obesity in children and adolescents: causes, dangers, therapy

Obesity in children and adolescents, as well as in adults, is an important problem in recent decades. According to the World Health Organization, 42 million children under the age of 5 years are overweight and diagnosed as obesity. Over the past 20 years, the number of small patients with this diagnosis has doubled, and in the next decade, it is projected to increase to 70 million. Unformed food culture, abundance of harmful products, along with a number of diseases lead to the formation of excessive fat reserves in the children's body, which have an extremely negative impact on physical and psycho-emotional well-being, as a result of which the issues of diagnosis and therapy of obesity formed whole sections in dietetics, therapy, surgery and endocrinology and others Branches of medicine.

Causes of obesity in children For the primary diagnosis of obesity, it is necessary to use centile tables, estimating the ratio of height, weight and type of physique of the child. In the table there are optimal ranges, and also boundary: children and adolescents of lean or dense physique also come into normalcy. If you get into the red zone, the proportions of height and weight indicate the presence of excess or insufficient weight, which is a danger to health. Tables are developed for young children, including infants, and ranges 6-11 and 12-17 years (adolescents). Two leading groups of factors distinguish obesity in the etiology of obesity: an alimentary group is caused by an improper diet for social or psychological reasons, hypodynamia, a sedentary lifestyle; Endocrine factor group consists of diseases and dysfunctions of the metabolic system (pathologies of the thyroid gland, pituitary diseases, adrenal diseases, ovarian dysfunction, etc.).

The primary diagnostic of the causes of obesity is the child endocrinologist. Among the most common factors in the formation of excess body weight are: overeating. Predisposition can be formed during the gestation period, if the mother consumes a large amount of fast carbohydrates (sugar, sweets, baked goods, carbonated drinks, some fruits, etc.), during early childhood with an incorrect complementary feeding scheme. Also, overeating can be a family "tradition": the habit of parents is a lot, abundantly, the inclusion of a large number of harmful products contributes to the formation of children inappropriate eating behavior;

A sedentary lifestyle, if not associated with physical limitations, is in second place among the reasons for the formation of excess weight and also in most cases is copied from the parent facilities according to the types of rest and use of free time; Hypothyroidism, inadequate thyroid hormone production. In this case, obesity is also facilitated by other symptoms of the disease: later physical and mental development of the child, characteristic puffiness of the face, violations of the defecation process (constipation), dry skin, adolescent girls have an irregular cycle of menstruation; Diseases and pathologies of a genetic anamnesis, hereditary or individual, are also often accompanied by excessive body weight; Disease Itenko-Cushing, the pathology of the adrenal glands, causing hyperproduction of glucocorticosteroids. In this disease, adipose tissue accumulates in the central and upper parts of the body, avoiding the extremities and pelvic region; Disruption of the pituitary gland due to injuries, surgical pathologies, inflammatory diseases of the brain, neoplasms;

Polycystic phenomena in the ovaries of adolescent girls are accompanied by obesity, seborrhea, menstrual irregularities, male-type hairy; Adiposo-genital dystrophy in adolescent males is accompanied by maldevelopment of the genital organs, the absence or non-manifestation of manifestations of secondary sexual characteristics (facial hair, breast, axillary and inguinal areas), enlarged mammary glands. To diagnose the causes of obesity, the following studies are used: a biochemical blood test that allows to evaluate blood glucose, cholesterol concentration, triglycerides, proteins and their fractions. Also pay attention to the revealed indicators of AST and ALT for evaluation of the functions of the cardiovascular system, liver, etc.; Analysis on the level of hormones secreted by the thyroid gland and adrenal glands; By indications resort to X-ray examination, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound examination of internal organs.

What is dangerous obesity in childhood? The cardiovascular system responds to overweight by the development of hypertension, coronary heart disease, angina pectoris, atherosclerotic vascular changes, and chronic heart failure. Although these diagnoses are more typical for middle-aged and older people, adolescents with obesity are also prone to developing similar diseases and disorders.

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