The enzyme responsible for obesity was found

German scientists have found that the enzyme Lsd1 turns "good" brown fat into "bad" white. The study is published in the journal Cell Reports.

In mammals, there are three types of adipose tissue: white, beige and brown. White adipose tissue consists of white fat cells (adipocytes), which are located mainly in the abdominal cavity and in the subcutaneous fatty layer. The function of white adipocytes is to store lipids. Brown fat cells contain few lipids, and their mitochondria consist of iron-containing proteins, which give the cells a brown color. Brown and beige adipocytes consume stored energy for the release of heat.

Scientists from the University of Freiburg found that the enzyme lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) plays a key role in the metabolism of brown fat. They found that a decrease in the activity of this enzyme in the body can lead to an increase in body weight, as well as the development of diabetes in old age. In their work, scientists have reduced the catalytic activity of the enzyme Lsd1 in brown adipocytes. After this procedure the cells of brown fat paled and increased in size. At the same time, they changed their function: they stored energy, instead of spending it in the form of heat.

Also, the enzyme Lsd1 is involved in fatty acid catabolism. In another experiment, scientists demonstrated that mice with inhibited Lsd1 enzyme activity gain weight rapidly. Low catalytic activity of the enzyme increases the concentration of glucose in the cells and reduces the level of fatty acids. Thus, the body takes energy mainly from glucose. Glucose metabolism products accumulate in the body and lead to "bleaching" of brown fat. A thorough understanding of how this enzyme works will help scientists develop new methods of combating obesity.

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