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Skin cells converted into neurons using chemicals
Two independent research groups have developed two different methods of transformation skin cells into neurons. In both cases, the cells are exposed to chemicals. In the future, these techniques may be used for treating various diseases patient using his own cell as a basic tool of therapy. Most existing techniques now used by scientists to transform a cell type to another, or to obtain stem "multifunctional" cells It involves adding new genes into the stem cells. However, such techniques have significant drawbacks: for example, the additional gene can not integrate at the chromosomal region, which can cause unpredictable effects, including the development and Cancer. The lead author of one of the new studies Pei Gang (Gang Pei), a biochemist at the Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences in China, explains that the key to his new method - the so- called small molecule chemicals that can slip into the cell, get into its core containing DNA and alter the activity of a gene. Pei and his team investigated thoUSAnds of chemicals to calculate those which can convert one type into another cell. As a result, they were able to detect a compound which at a chemical level can inactivate genes characteristic for the cells of the skin and activate genes that are typical for neurons. This complex compound consists of seven small molecules - valproic acid, CHIR99021, RepSox, forskolin, SP600125, GO6983 and Y-27632. The name of the new compound was prepared the first letters of its components - VCRFSGY. When the experiment Pei and his colleagues added the compound to the skin VCRFSGY in Petri dishes, they trasformirovalis into mature neurons that remain in operation condition for several weeks. This command is described in the article, published in Cell Stem Cell. The technique consists of a number of active stages. The first four substances VCRF change physical traits, working on a gene called Tuj1, the activity of which is characterized by for neurons. At this point, the cell is no longer skin cells, but also can not considered complete neuron. The other three compounds - SGY - completed the transformation by strengthening development neurons initiated VCRF. The resulting cells not only look like these neurons, but also behave accordingly: they have demonstrated the ability to the appearance of the action potential - a key component of the underlying neuronal communication. In the second study, another group of scientists from China held cell transformation skin into neurons, experimenting with mouse tissues. For this, they used several a chemical cocktail, a key ingredient of which was the inhibitor I-BET151, suppressing transcription in skin cells. Final same transformation into neurons proceeded depending on environmental conditions. "The fact that as many as two techniques are equally effective transform one type of cell another is that the chemical reprogramming able to fully compete a gene editing, "- says the lead author of the second study Hoon Teng Kui (Hong Kui Deng), a biologist at the University of Beijing, whose article was also published in the journal Cell Stem Cell. The authors of both papers are confident that their development could form the basis of personalized medicine of the future. For example, certain neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease can be treated healthy replacement of diseased cells. And if the latter will be obtained from the body of the patient - for example, of the skin - the the likelihood of a favorable outcome of the treatment will be very high.

НАЖМИТЕ ЗДЕСЬ ДЛЯ ПРОСМОТРА ВСЕГО СПИСКА НОВОСТЕЙ О НЕОБЫЧНЫХ ЯВЛЕНИЯХ>>>

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